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SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
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Error: #f88
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/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
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* html #backstage {width:99%;}
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/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which use a logographic writing system and need larger font sizes.
***/

/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}

#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
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.htmlarea .toolbarHA table {border:1px solid ButtonFace; margin:0em 0em;}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
@media print {
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#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em 1em;}
/* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
noscript {display:none;}
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
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<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
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<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
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<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
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<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar closeTiddler closeOthers +editTiddler > fields syncing permalink references jump'></div>
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<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
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To get started with this blank TiddlyWiki, you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These InterfaceOptions for customising TiddlyWiki are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a WikiWord (eg JoeBloggs)

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> SaveBackups
<<option chkAutoSave>> AutoSave
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> RegExpSearch
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> CaseSensitiveSearch
<<option chkAnimate>> EnableAnimations

----
Also see AdvancedOptions
The word adaptogen is a very apt word for this ingredient. In simple terms this ingredient helps the body adapt naturally to cope and with reducing stress. Since 1947 medical and scientific research has been conducted and published on adaptogens in various parts of the world, but has lately only become available to us in the West.

!!Adaptogens are used for
Not only do they help us to cope with stress and the hassles of every day living, but they are also powerful antioxidants. There is a vast amount of information available on this ingredient, but it is relatively new in the Western hemisphere, since the Russians, during the Cold War period, did major research on this ingredient.

It is non- toxic and is not habit forming, while it exerts a normalizing influence on the body, possessing a wide range of therapeutic benefits which cause no disturbance to the normal functioning of the body.

Adaptogens are natural nutrients and are made from three types of plants -rhodiola rosea, eleutherococcus and schisandra chinensis.

Explaining the effects of the adaptogens is difficult, since they will influence each individual differently. If you are mentally exhausted or physically fatigued the adaptogens will help you feel more energetic, vitalized, and full of zest for life - but yet, they are not normal stimulants.

Should you however be stressed-out, or emotionally tired, and not coping with life the adaptogens will help you relax and make life easier to cope with, yet they are not tranquillizers and will not have a drug-like effect on the body.

The antioxidants contained in the adaptogens help the body fight free radicals which are released during the oxidation process of metabolism in the body, which can cause a variety of problems such as cell degeneration, cancer, ageing and many other diseases.

To ensure that the vital nutrients, and their potency, are retained while being extracted from the plant material a unique extraction method is used.

Adaptogens are completely safe and effective and have been tested by various institutes, academies and sports agencies - and contain no drugs, preservatives nor banned substances.

!!Deficiency of adaptogens
Should you feel you are not coping, continuously fatigued or you need to increase stamina, endurance, concentration and mental clarity, you might look at adding this nutrient to your diet in order to improve these conditions.

An increase of over 20% in the capacity to work has been reported as well as a reduction of errors made, by over 80% - which makes this a great nutrient to take when studying, or working at optimum levels.

It is further reported that endurance is increased by up to 26% and an increase in strength is improved by nearly 10%.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

We recommend a minimum of 1 x capsule for each 70 pounds of body weight.

One to two capsules in the morning, preferable on a empty stomach, after waking up, to ensure maximum absorption.
*People also take 2 capsules per hour of extreme physical workout or mental activity to assist the body and mind to cope with the extra demands made, and cut down on recovery time.
*If you are training it is suggested that you take the supplement 1 hour before the time to assist with your training session.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
There are no toxic effects of this ingredient and high intake is well tolerated. ADAPTOGENS ARE NOT BANNED BY ANY INTERNATIONAL SPORTS.

!!Best used with
Adaptogens are best taken first thing in the morning for best absorption.

!!When more may be required
During periods of extreme mental and physical exertion, great benefit can be derived from this nutrient.

!!Other interesting points
People that have been using ecstasy as a recreational drug, with resultant depression, and a drop in dopamine levels in the brain, have reported an increased feeling of well-being after ceasing the intake of ecstasy, and taking adaptogens to help repair the damage caused by this recreational drug.

It has been reported that bodybuilders and athletes improve their performance with adaptogens, since it helps the body to return quicker to its normal resting stage.

!!Food sources
Adaptogens are found in rhodiola rosea, eleutherococcus and schisandra chinensis.

[[Adaptogens - why?]]
!!Why you benefit from this formula:
Adaptogen formula may assist your body to cope and will act in harmony with your individual needs and may assist with the following:
*protect the body from stress
*increase stamina
*increase strength
*shorten recovery period after physical exertion
*increase level of concentration
*decrease errors made
*increase work capacity
*increase sexual potency
*increase feeling of well-being
*decrease feeling stressed-out
*helps as anti-inflammatory
*improve circulation
*protects the body with the antioxidants contained
 
!!References
*These extracts, from three different plant species, do not specifically only stimulate or sedate, but will act on what your body requires and individual needs.
*The Russians have funded much research into the field of adaptogens, and for this reason, because of the increased mental and physical activities achieved with this nutrient, have recommended that their cosmonauts supplement their diet with them.
*With the adaptogens nature provides us with the means to cope with the pressures of life, and have been used for centuries in the East to combat stress, mental and physical fatigue and to minimize tissue damage resulting from the free-radicals that our bodies are exposed to daily.

!!Why you should you take Adaptogens as a nutritional supplement?
*Almost everyone can benefit from this supplement if you live in our modern world.
*The pressures of our busy lifestyle lead to tiredness, listlessness and a general lack of energy.
*In short your quality of life is being affected by a general sense of not being totally well. With Adaptogens nutritional supplement you provide your body with the means to combat mental and physical fatigue.
*It should be emphasized that a sound basic nutritional status should also be achieved in conjunction with additional supplementation for maximum benefit to be derived from our Adaptogens supplements.

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and is used by the body to build protein and was first isolated in 1879. The alpha-carbon in alanine is substituted with a levorotatory (l)-methyl group, making it one of the simplest amino acids with respect to molecular structure and is one of the most widely used in protein construction.

!!Alanine is required for
It is required for the metabolism of glucose and tryptophan and beta-alanine is a constituent of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) as well as coenzyme A. It has also demonstrated a cholesterol-reducing effect in rats.

People suffering from Epstein Barr (also sometimes referred to as glandular fever) as well as chronic fatigue syndrome, have been linked to excessively high levels of alanine while having low levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine.

!!Deficiency of alanine
None known.

!!Dosage
Dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Most people do not need to supplement with alanine since it is well provided for in the diet, and can be synthesized from pyruvic acid (formed in the breakdown of carbohydrates).

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Alanine does not have many side effects, but people with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without consulting a health care professional.

!!When more may be required
People on a very low protein diet, could be at risk of a deficiency.

!!Other interesting points
It has been found that alanine is present in prostate fluid, and it may play a role in the role of the prostate. In one study of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, it was found that 780 mg of alanine per day for two weeks and then 390 mg for the next two and a half months, taken together in combination with equal amounts of glycine and glutamic acid reduced the symptoms.

!!Food sources of alanine
As with the other amino acids, excellent sources of alanine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products. Some protein-rich plant foods like avocado also supply alanine.
Alcohol and ethanol are formed by the fermentation of glucose by the enzyme in yeast, and although it contains very little nutritional value, it may represent a large part of the energy intake of individuals ingesting large amounts of alcohol.

Ethanol does not require digestion and is directly absorbed through the gastrointestinal track.

It is metabolized primarily in the liver by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase where ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde.

The rate of metabolism of alcohol is increased by the simultaneous metabolism of carbohydrate pyruvate.
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and unlike the two other basic nutrients – sugar and fatty acids, amino acids contain nitrogen – about 16%. Because of the vital functions of these nutrients, great care should be taken by any person concerned about their health, to ensure that sufficient amounts are supplied by the body in either dietary form, or if needed by supplementation.

!!Amino acids - general information
Protein is needed by every living organism, and next to water, makes up the largest portion of our body weight since it is contained in muscles, organs, hair, etc. The protein used in making up the body is not directly derived from diet, but the dietary protein is broken down into amino acids, and the body then re-constitute these amino acids into the specific proteins needed.

Enzymes and hormones regulating body functions are also proteins. And amino acids are used in most body processes from regulating the way the body works to how the brain functions - They activate and utilize vitamins and other nutrients.

Proteins are chains of amino acids linked together, bound together with peptide bonds and there are about 28 amino acids commonly referred to in human health.

The liver manufactures about 80% of these amino acids, but the remaining 20% of such amino acids must be supplied directly by diet, and these amino acids are referred to as the essential amino acids.

These essential amino acids are:
[[Histidine]]
[[Isoleucine]]
[[Leucine]]
[[Lysine]]
[[Methionine]]
[[Phenylalanine]]
[[Threonine]]
[[Tryptophan]] 
[[Valine]]

The 80% or so others that are manufactured by the liver includes: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, citrulline, cysteine, cystine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, ornithine, proline, serine, taurine and tyrosine.

The functioning of amino acids are interrelated, and a balanced and steady supply of these nutrients are needed to maintain proper body functioning. A dietary shortage of amino acids can impact negatively on your health - just as other stressors, such as trauma, drug use, age, infections etc.

When the body synthesizes protein, ammonia is formed in the liver as a waste product, and too large amounts of protein into the diet can result in too much ammonia being formed, and in so doing placing extra stress on the liver and kidneys to flush it out the body.

Amino acid supplements come in various forms but can essentially be divided in three types of products – either derived from animal protein, yeast or vegetable protein. Most amino acids can be produced in two forms, except for glycine, that is either a D or L form.

These letters stands for the way in which the amino acid spiral is wound up - D is for the right wound type and L for the mirror left winding amino acid.

Human amino acid is the L type and for this reason many people prefer to use supplements containing the L type amino acid.

!!Amino acid supplementation information
Free form amino acids are the ones immediately absorbed into the body and need no digestion at all.

When taking an amino acid supplement it is best to have vitamin c (ascorbic acid) as well as vitamin B6 present at the same time for best absorption.

But like all things, use it as prescribed, and with common sense, as very high doses of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, homocysteine, serine and tryptophan could form toxic levels in the body, and in so doing cause damage.
Amylase refers to a group of enzymes which break down sugars and starches.

!!Amylase is required for
It is required to digest carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into smaller units (disaccharides), and eventually converting them into even smaller units (monosaccharides) such as glucose.

It is also involved in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine and similar substances.

These inflammatory reactions normally happen to organs which are in contact with the outside environment, such as your skin and lungs and would include problems such as psoriasis, eczema, hives, insect bites, allergic bee and bug stings, topic dermatitis, and all types of herpes as well as lung problems including asthma and emphysema.

Ptyalin (that is amylase found in your saliva) begins polysaccharide digestion in the mouth and the process is completed in the small intestine by amylopsin (amylase excreted by the pancreas).

!!Deficiency of amylase
If your diet is excessively high in carbohydrates, a deficiency of amylase may occur, since this enzyme would be used up by the body at a tremendous rate, and symptoms may include a diversified group of symptoms, which may include a skin rash, depression and mood swings (including PMS), hypoglycemia, allergies, general fatigue, cold hands and feet, inflammation, aches in your shoulders etc.

!!Other interesting points
It is also involved in digesting and getting rid of dead white blood cells (a nicer name for pus) and for this reason you might be more prone to abscesses if you are deficient in this enzyme.


Apples contain a host of nutritional ingredients, and for your reference we listed them underneath. 
''1 Apple''
|!Nutrient(raw)|!Unit|!Amount|
|''General''|
|Water|g|115.00|
|Energy|kJ|340.00|
|Protein|g|0.26|
|Total fats|g|0.49|
|Carbohydrates|g|21.00|
|Fiber|g|3.72|
|''Vitamins''|
|Vitamin C|mg|7.86|
|Thiamin - vitamin B1|mg|0.02|
|Riboflavin -vitamin B2|mg|0.19|
|Niacin - vitamin B3|mg|0.10|
|Pantothenic acid - vitamin B5|mg|0.08|
|Pyridoxine -vitamin B6|mg|0.06|
|Vitamin A|IU|73.14|
|Vitamin E|mg|0.44|
|Folate - vitamin B9|mcg|3.86|
|''Minerals''|
|Calcium|mg|9.66|
|Copper|mg|0.05|
|Iron|mg|0.24|
|Manganese|mg|0.06|
|Magnesium|mg|6.90|
|Phosphorus|mg|9.66|
|Potassium|mg|158.70|
|Selenium|mcg|0.41|
|Sodium|mg|trace|
|Zinc|mg|0.05|
|''Fats''|
|Fatty acids - saturated|g|0.08|
|Fatty acids - unsaturated|g|0.02|
|Fatty acids -polyunsaturated|g|0.14|
|Cholesterol|mg|trace|
|Phytosterols|mg|16.56|
|''Amino acids''|
|Alanine|g|0.10|
|Arginine|g|0.008|
|Aspartic acid|g|0.04|
|Cystine|g|0.01|
|Glutamic acid|g|0.02|
|Glycine|g|0.01|
|Histidine|g|0.004|
|Isoleucine|g|0.01|
|Leucine|g|0.01|
|Lysine|g|0.01|
|Methionine|g|0.003|
|Phenylalanine|g|0.007|
|Proline|g|0.01|
|Serine|g|0.01|
|Threonine|g|0.01|
|Tryptophan|g|0.003|
|Tyrosine|g|0.006|
|Valine|g|0.01|
Apple cider vinegar has been used for centuries as a folk remedy for a selection of ills. The ancient Egyptians, as far back as 3000 BC, and even the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, sang the praises of this unique, yet humble, product.

Fermenting apple juice to alcoholic apple cider, and then letting the oxygen interact with it, turns the alcohol into acetic acid - one of the "magic" ingredients in the finished product. To help this process along from the alcoholic base, "mother" is added - that being the spider web look-alike bacteria foam that forms during the fermentation process.
!!Apple cider vinegar - Introduction
The saying of "an apple a day keeps the doctor away" comes from the medieval English saying, which really goes "to eat an apple before going to bed will make the doctor beg for his bread."

This would be hard to believe in our modern day world, where our health is kept together and disease is kept at bay by a battery of doctors - ranging from cardiologists, dermatologists, gynecologists, internists, oncologists, neurologists, pathologists, radiologists etc.

Some people complain that it might be too acid to drink, but that is really a fallacy since the pH is lower than that of commercial cola!

And to make it even easier to swallow, we developed the apple cider vinegar capsule with gotu kola, where the active liquid is freeze dried, combined with the greatly beneficial gotu kola (Centella asiatica) herb, and capsulated in our laboratory - to make taking it an easy procedure.

!!Substances in apple cider vinegar
Scientists have measured ninety different substances in apple cider vinegar such as thirteen types of carbolic acids, four aldehydes, twenty ketones, eighteen types of alcohols, eight ethyl acetates etc.

It also contains important minerals, trace elements and vitamins (as listed underneath) as well acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, enzymes, amino acids as well as roughage in the form of potash and apple pectin.

!!Minerals and trace elements
Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Chlorine, Sodium, Sulfur, Copper, Iron, Silicon, Fluorine.

!!Vitamins
Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Provitamin beta-carotene, Vitamin P.

!!Useful in
Well functioning metabolism; Reducing cholesterol (the dangerous LDL cholesterol type); Regulating the water content in the cells and body; Reducing water retention in the body; Reducing excess sodium from the body; Helps with regulating blood pressure; Assists in preventing circulatory problems; Helps with diminishing premature calcification of the arteries; Helps increase concentration and memory; Assists in blood circulation, body temperature as well as vitality and energy.

!!Arthritis
This condition of inflammation of the joints is a major chronic disease in the West, and is believed to be partly caused by a build-up of toxic wastes in the tissues, causing irritation. It is thought that these metabolic toxic wastes can be contained by eliminating food allergies as well as unhealthy life styles such as smoking, not exercising and being obese.

Arthritis suffers have reported a positive influence that apple cider vinegar has on the pain experienced as well as slowing down the progression of this disease. Most people using it as a therapy for this problem ingest it four times a day.

!!Asthma
Although orthodox medicine might not agree with this remedy, some people have found relief from asthma by ingesting apple cider vinegar, as well as applying pads, soaked in apple cider vinegar, under pressure to the inside of the wrists.

!!Blood pressure
The potassium in apple cider vinegar is said to be beneficial to both the heart and blood pressure, and in some quarters this remedy is said to assist in making the blood thinner, and thereby assisting with blood pressure and in the prevention of a stroke.

!!Bones
The manganese, magnesium, silicon (and calcium) found in apple cider vinegar has been linked in sustaining bone mass, which is important in the fight against osteoporosis.

A supplement of apple cider vinegar could for this reason be valuable to consider should you suffer from a calcium shortage, have a problem with osteoporosis, or if you are entering your postmenopausal stage, where a risk of bone loss could cause a problem.

!!Cancer
Although apple cider cannot cure cancer, it is a valuable ally to have around to help fight free radicals in the body, which have been shown to be indicative in the formation of various cancers. Beta-carotene, found in apple cider vinegar, is a powerful antioxidant, which helps in neutralizing the free radicals, formed in our bodies through oxidation.

To prevent these free radicals, and to keep them in check, we need antioxidants in our system to rid our bodies of these potentially dangerous compounds. If free radicals are left alone to have the run of our bodies, they cause major damage by severely damaging cells, which leads to aging and degeneration.

The pectin in apple cider vinegar adds fiber to the diet, and even the American Cancer Society promotes a high fiber diet to help with preventing cancer, especially colon cancer. The reason for this is that fiber binds with certain cancer causing (carcinogenic) compounds in the colon, and speeds up their elimination from the body.

!!Candida
Although there are different factors influencing the formation of candida (which is a yeast infection) a disturbance of your diet, as well as an intake of antibiotics must be looked at when you experience such an episode of candida flare-up, since the yeast balance in your body can be thrown out of sync by these two factors.

A selection of topical creams and lotions are available, but a cheap alternative can be found by douching twice a day with a solution of ACV until the symptoms disappear. The solution is made from 2 tablespoons of ACV to a quart of lukewarm water - this solution will assist in restoring the acid balance.

!!Cholesterol
A good warning system for heart disease is the presence of high blood cholesterol in the system. To help prevent this is to follow a lifestyle which includes eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, maintaining your ideal weight, getting enough exercise while avoiding processed foods, junk foods and hydrogenated oils.

Another way is to add fiber to your diet, especially water-soluble fiber - such as the pectin found in apple cider vinegar. Water-soluble fiber soaks up water, which adds bulk, and interacts with your body, and also keeps on working longer than non water-soluble fiber.

Fiber also soaks up fats and cholesterol in the body and then is excreted instead of being reabsorbed.

Non water-soluble fiber soaks up moisture in the body, but cannot interact with the body. The amino acids contained in apple cider vinegar have also shown promise in neutralizing some of the harmful oxidized LDL cholesterol.

!!Colds
It has been found that the pH factor (the acidity factor) of the body becomes a bit more alkaline prior to a cold or flu striking you down. When you take apple cider vinegar it helps to rebalance the acid level of your body.

Another remedy for colds and flu, and said to be specifically beneficial for chest complaints during the winter, is to soak a piece of brown paper with apple cider vinegar, and to place pepper on the one side of the paper. You then tie the paper, pepper side down, on to your chest and leave on for 25 - 30 minutes.

!!Constipation
Not having proper bowel movements is blamed for many illnesses and diseases which befall us. The logic behind it stating that should the waste products from our bodily functions be retained in the body, for longer than what nature intends, it will cause toxins to be absorbed back into the system.

As we age our bodies produce less and start to lag behind in the manufacture of digestive acids (hydrochloric acid), pepsin and digestive enzymes - which can cause constipation. When we add fiber to our diet, such as the pectin in apple cider vinegar, we assist our body by having regular bowel movements and proper elimination.

!!Cramps
If you have never woken up in the middle of the night with cramps tearing through your calves, feet or legs, you would not understand the agony. A useful remedy to assist with this is to take apple cider vinegar.

!!Diabetes
This disease is becoming more and more common, and there may be various reasons for this phenomena, but it must be remembered that it is not only extremely serious, but needs proper medical supervision, and a strict adherence to dietary rules and medication, as prescribed by your medical practitioner. It is however interesting to note that added dietary fiber, such as contained in apple cider vinegar, is beneficial in controlling blood glucose levels.

!!Diarrhea
There are various causes for diarrhea, and although it should not be left untreated, it sometimes is a way for the body to rid itself of harmful compounds and ingested materials. The pectin in apple cider vinegar is great to take when suffering from this problem, since this water-soluble fiber swells up, and forms bulk.

It is also an effective ingredient to use against certain bacteria which causes diarrhea and the intestinal flora also transforms pectin into a protective coating which soothes the irritated lining of the colon. Next time you have a problem, consider this most humble treatment.

!!Depression
Although prescribing apple cider vinegar for depression would be classed as extremely alternative, some Eastern medicines do believe that depression is the symptom of a "stagnant" or tired liver. If you believe in this philosophy, then apple cider vinegar would help to fight depression, since it is a great medium to help detoxify and clean the liver.

!!Eyes
Cataract development in the eye is associated to oxidation of the lens of the eye due to alterations caused by free radicals changing the structure of the lens. With this in mind apple cider vinegar can be of use with this problem, since the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene contained in apple cider vinegar, are great in combating free radicals.

!!Fatigue
Lactic acid is released in the body during exercise as well as periods of stress, and this can lead to fatigue, which in turn can be combated by the amino acids contained in apple cider vinegar. The enzymes, as well as the potassium contained in apple cider vinegar can also be of great help in the quest for more energy and vitality.

!!Food poisoning
Because of the great disinfectant qualities inherent in apple cider vinegar, some people when suffering from mild cases of food poisoning use it with success. If you suffer from violent symptoms, and suspect serious food poisoning please contact your medical practitioner immediately.

!!Gallstones and Kidney stones
A theory exist that the acids found in apple cider vinegar are beneficial in breaking up kidney stones and gallstones, by softening or dissolving them. Although we cannot guarantee any results, since there are so many other influencing factors, it might be worth your while to supplement your diet with apple cider vinegar, should you be suffering from gallstones or kidney stones.

!!Headaches
The cause of headaches can be stress, allergies, tiredness, problems with your gallbladder, liver, kidneys, or a variety of other factors. Although apple cider vinegar cannot be touted as a headache treatment, is has been found that people have slightly more alkaline urine when suffering from a headache, and with this apple cider vinegar could be effective, since it will assist in bringing your body's acid level back into sync.

The inhalation of apple cider vinegar could also assist with a headache - and can be achieved by adding some apple cider vinegar to boiling water in a big pan, removing it from the stove and carefully inhaling the vapor.

!!Heart
Since apple cider vinegar is used to promote the health of veins and capillaries, it is by implication also useful in assisting in the health of the heart and blood pressure. The potassium found in the apple cider vinegar is also beneficial to the heart.

!!Indigestion
When people start talking about indigestion they immediately start referring to the "excess" stomach acid that they have! In most cases it is NOT a case of an excess of stomach acid, but a shortage of it.

Hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme working in an acid environment, are needed to break down the food effectively, and a shortage of these two ingredients will lead to a sluggish digestion of food and resultant indigestion. Taking apple cider vinegar may assist in effecting a remedy.

!!Metabolism
The quest for achieving the ideal weight always will include effective and efficient metabolism. Without it, your dietary intake will not be metabolized correctly, the nutrients will not be available to the body, and will result in excess weight being added to the body frame.

Apple cider vinegar has been used for centuries in aiding the liver to detoxify the body and to help with digesting rich, fatty and greasy foods, and for proper metabolizing of proteins, fats and minerals. If the food cannot be broken down into the absorbable form, the body cannot assimilate the required nutrients needed from the diet.

An added extra to help with this is the malic acid and tartaric acid found in apple cider vinegar, since they help to bring the acid content into balance, while killing off unwanted and unfriendly bacteria in the digestive tract.

!!Muscles
Lactic acid in muscles is the cause of the muscles feeling sore and stiff, but by adding some apple cider vinegar to your diet, it could assist the body to get rid of it at a faster pace, since it will help to break down the acid crystals, making it much easier to be flushed out the body.

!!Nasal congestion
A constant draining of mucus from the sinus cavities can both be sore and uncomfortable. It is best to cut out, or eat as little as possible, of mucus forming food - which traditionally, in most cases would be dairy products.

Many sufferers of nasal congestion have experienced relief by adding apple cider vinegar to their diet.

!!Sore throat
A gargle made from apple cider vinegar and water could prove to be a great relief for a sore throat - be that a bacterial or virus infection. The solution is a 50/50 mixture, and it is best to spit out the solution after gargling, which should be repeated every hour. After gargling rinse the mouth with clean water to prevent the acid from eroding the enamel on your teeth.

!!Stiff joints
A shortage of potassium in the body may cause stiff joints. Apple cider vinegar could help in relieving this problem when ingesting it, since it is a good source of the needed nutrient. Another remedy is to relax in a warm tub, with some apple cider vinegar added to the water.

!!Ulcers
Apple cider vinegar is showing great promise in helping to heal alcohol-induced ulcers, since it activates the body to start its own defensive mechanism. This, together with other indicators suggests that apple cider vinegar may in the near future be drawn into the fold of alternative ulcer preventing remedies.

!!Weight loss
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a weight loss remedy for centuries, and although the mechanics are not always clear on how it works, it really does work.

It has been suggested that the apple cider vinegar works because it makes the body burn calories better, that it reduces the appetite or simply that it gets the entire metabolism working at top efficiency.

But whatever the reason, the fact remains that it has stood the test of time as a fat-busting supplement, and has helped countless people to achieve their ideal weight.
Apple Cider Vinegar with Centella is used all over the world to assist with problems such as curbing appetite, detoxification agent helping to detoxify the body, weight loss. Apple cider vinegar is good for slimming, diets, boosting immune system, supplying amino acids, minerals, vitamins, aiding metabolism to burn and metabolize food effectively.

Apple cider vinegar and your metabolism and immune system

We could all do with an anti-aging health supplement to keep our immune systems working well, to rev up our metabolism with resultant weight loss, and to add vitality and energy. With our metabolism working properly we also help with detoxifying the body.

!!Apple cider vinegar and arthritis
People claim that apple cider vinegar also helps with arthritis. Apple cider vinegar with centella is short of miraculous.

!!Apple cider vinegar and cholesterol
The apple cider vinegar with centella contains fiber and assists with getting rid of cholesterol and people also use it (a capful) in water as a final hair rinse. We should keep cholesterol in check to have optimum health. Apple Cider Vinegar is also taken by people to assist in high blood pressure (hypertension) - and we all know how detrimental hypertension (high blood pressure) can be to our bodies. With it in capsule form - there is no sour taste to pucker your mouth!

!!Apple cider vinegar and circulation and skin
Apple cider vinegar and centella helps with arthritis, and is great for the skin and helps with blood circulation, and strengthens the arteries. Apple cider vinegar also helps with marks and wounds, (also assists in healing deep and open wounds) varicose veins, thread veins and skin lesions improve because of the balancing effect the apple cider vinegar and centella have on the collagen matrix and supportive structures.

!!Vitality and good health
Apple cider vinegar is also used for headaches, tension, anxiety, stress - promoting vitality and energy. Apple Cider Vinegar is truly a wonderful health product, and is made even more effective with our addition of the Centella herb. These two herbal agents work in unique synergy to create a superb anti-aging product to positively influence your health, appetite, metabolism, weight, diet, slimming, high blood pressure (hypertension), skin tone, veins, immune system, energy and vitality levels, cholesterol level, blood circulation etc and our general well-being. 

Our Ageless products are very competitively priced, and frequently much lower priced than other products of lesser quality, but this Apple Cider with Centella might be a dollar or two more expensive than our competitors, but with good reason - this wonderfully combined product, with its superior quality is well worth the dollar or two more. Click here to view our product list.

Apple cider vinegar is made from a blend of juices pressed from chopped apples. As early as 400 BC the father of medicine - Hippocrates - used it to treat his patients. Today in the USA alone, over 65 million liters of apple cider is consumed mainly because of its phenomenal health properties ranging from helping body metabolism to detoxification.

!!Amino acids
Apple cider has acetic acid, plus ion-futynic lactic and propionic acids. It boosts the immune system and is both an antiseptic and anti-biotic. It is the richest source of amino acids known. There are a lot of people who also take apple cider vinegar as a natural herbal appetite suppressant when busy with weight loss and dieting.

Some people find Apple Cider Vinegar very sour, tart and acidic to drink, but it is amazing how quickly you get used to the taste. It is in actual fact less acidic than most commercial gassy cola drinks!!!

This vinegar supplies a balanced dose of vital amino acids, minerals and vitamins that the body and mind needs for good health.

!!Low in salt, sugar and fat
It ads fiber and is low in salt, sugar, and fat. Apple cider vinegar helps digestion and improves the metabolism of the body. These properties are great when busy with weight loss and detoxifying in your quest to achieve an anti-aging perfect body. Anybody with a slow or sluggish metabolism might think of using this apple cider vinegar with centella to help boost their metabolism in order to effectively burn and metabolize their food intake. Click here to view our product list.

Apple cider vinegar contains:
*[[Chlorine]]
*[[Calcium]]
*[[Iron]]
*[[Magnesium]]
*[[Potassium]]
*[[Sulfur]]
*[[Sodium]]
*[[Silicon]]

The vinegar is made from fresh natural apples that contain pectin - a soluble fiber which stays in the body longer. These fibers bind themselves to the cholesterol globules and pull them out of the body - and everybody knows the value of lower cholesterol in the body.

Less cholesterol in the body reduces the risk of cardiovascular problems.

Special health hints:
*Arthritis
**Mix two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and two teaspoons of honey in a glass of water daily, as a diet supplement.
*Digestion and weight control
**Try two level desert spoons of bran mixed with two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar each morning, sprinkled onto porridge, yogurt or fruit.
*High blood pressure
**Try two teaspoons apple cider vinegar mixed in water and take each morning.

With our capsules you can enjoy the benefits without the sour taste of the vinegar.

With the addition of one of the most superb herbs, Centella Asiatica, (GOTU KOLA) this simple vinegar can be a wonder worker. For more info on Centella, please click here.

Primarily and particularly good for the circulation for skin ailments and rejuvenation, this extraordinary herb is continuously astounding medical science.

Centella imparts its unique health giving properties into the apple cider vinegar, combining with the vinegar's natural detoxifiers, making a true health product that should be part of our daily diets forever.

As a bonus, it may stimulate clear thinking, increase brain power and slow the aging process.

Benefits : Apple Cider with Centella may assist in the following:
*weight loss and suppressing your appetite, boost the immune system
*act as antiseptic and antibiotic
*rich source of amino acids and rich in vitamins & minerals
*adds fiber and low in salt, sugar and fat, helps digestion and improves metabolism
*decreasing cholesterol, arthritis and high blood pressure
*good for circulation and detoxifying the body, stimulates thinking and slowing aging process



Arginine is a non-essential amino acid and is abundant in protamines and histones – both proteins associated with nucleic acids and was first isolated in 1895 from animal horn. Newborns may produce this amino acid too slowly and for them arginine should be seen as an essential amino acid.

!!Arginine required for
It is extremely useful in enhancing the immune system, and it increases the size and activity of the thymus gland, which is responsible for manufacturing T lymphocytes – the much talked about T-cells, which assist the immune system. For this reason it might be an important nutrient for people suffering from AIDS and other malignant diseases which suppress the immune system.

In the pancreas it is used to release insulin and in the pituitary gland it is a component of human growth hormone, and is used in sexual stimulants, as people report longer and more intense orgasms when their intake of arginine is increased.

It is also important in liver health and assists in neutralizing ammonia in the liver, while it is also involved in the skin and connective tissue – making it important in healing and repair of tissue as well as the formation of collagen and building of new bone and tendons.

Arginine is found in seminal fluid and L-arginine is used in the treatment of male sexual health and has been used in the treatment of sterility.

It is required in muscle metabolism – maintaining the nitrogen balance, and helping with weight control since it facilitates the increase of muscle mass, while reducing body fat.

!!Deficiency of arginine
Rare – but signs may include impaired insulin production as well as possible hair loss.

!!Dosage
Dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Rare, but symptoms of massive dosages may include skin thickening and coarsening of the skin, weakness, diarrhea, nausea, as well as increasing the activity of some viruses. For this reason people suffering from herpes should avoid high dosage. Pregnant and lactating women and people suffering from schizophrenia should also avoid high dosage.

!!Other interesting points
Arginine pyroglutamate, in addition to having cognitive enhancing effects, is an excellent growth hormone releaser because it is carried more efficiently across the blood-brain barrier than arginine alone. In Italy, this form of amino acid is used to treat senility, mental retardation, and alcoholism. Arginine pyroglutamate is an arginine molecule combined with a pyroglutamate molecule. Arginine alone does not produce cognitive enhancing effects.

This nutrient is gaining popularity as a non-prescription treatment for high cholesterol as animal studies and preliminary studies in humans suggest that it may improve coronary blood flow and lower cholesterol levels with its antioxidant property, and helping to keep blood-vessel tissue elastic.

!!Food sources of arginine
Whole-wheat, nuts, seeds, peanuts, brown rice, popcorn, soy, raisins, chocolate, carob.
Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid and is closely related to aspartic acid, and can be manufactured from this nutrient and was first isolated in 1932 from asparagus and is also widely available in plant protein, but a great volume of information is not available.

!!Asparagine is required for
It is required by the nervous system to maintain equilibrium and is also required for amino acid transformation from one form to the other which is achieved in the liver.

!!Deficiency of asparagine
None known.

!!Dosage
Dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Not reported.

!!Food sources of asparagine
It is found in dairy, beef, poultry and eggs.
Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid and is found in abundance in plant proteins, especially in sprouting seeds but can be manufactured in the body from oxaloacetic acid and was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seed. Aspartic acid, as well as glutamic acid, is the only amino acid that has a negatively charged carboxylate group on the side chain.

!!Aspartic acid is required for
It is of paramount importance in the metabolism during construction of other amino acids and biochemicals in the citric acid cycle. Among the biochemicals that are synthesized from aspartic acid are asparagine, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, and several nucleotides.

It is needed for stamina, brain and neural health and assists the liver by removing excess ammonia and other toxins from the bloodstream. It is also very important in the functioning of RNA, DNA, as well as the production of immunoglobulin and antibody synthesis.

!!Deficiency of aspartic acid
Symptoms may include fatigue and depression.

!!Dosage
Dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Food sources of aspartic acid
It is found in dairy, beef, poultry, sprouting seeds
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) include leucine, isoleucine as well as valine.

!!Branched chain amino acids are required for
This group of amino acids help to maintain muscle tissue; they also are needed during times of physical stress and intense exercise.

!!Deficiency of branched chain amino acids
See leucine, isoleucine and valine

!!Dosage
Dosages listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

A diet that includes animal protein provides an adequate amount of BCAA for most people.

Athletes involved in intense training may often take 5 grams of leucine, 4 grams of valine, and 2 grams of isoleucine per day to prevent muscle loss and increase muscle gain.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Side effects have not been reported with the use of BCAA. A high intake of BCAA are simply converted into other amino acids or used as energy.

!!Best used with
It is best to take BCAA along with whole proteins, such as lean meat or poultry, as well as multiple vitamins and minerals, especially the B group vitamins.

!!When more may be required
It has been shown that branched chain amino acids help with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease), maintaining muscle strength, while individuals with liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy) may benefit from intravenous administration of BCAAs.

During periods of physical stress, such as intense weight lifting and running, the body can enter a catabolic state – that is a state in which muscle tissue is broken down.

When this happens, supplements of BCAAs – specially leucine and its derivatives ketoisocaproate (KIC) and hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) may be beneficial in reducing protein breakdown, yet do not influence body composition nor enhance exercise performance.

Post-operative use of branched chain amino acids may help reduce muscle loss.

!!Food sources of branched chain amino acids
Dairy and red meat are good sources of BCAAs, as well as whey, protein and eggs.
Boron is a newcomer to nutritional supplements and is used to help with menopausal symptoms as well as maintaining healthy bones, since its affinity to calcium and magnesium.

!!Boron is required for
It enhances the body's ability to use calcium, magnesium, as well as vitamin D. It also seems to assist in brain functioning and recognition. Boron seems to prevent calcium and magnesium from being lost in the urine and may help with decreasing menstrual pain by increasing the oestradiol level, which is a very active type of estrogen. People have also reported the reduction of arthritis symptoms with an intake of Boron.

!!Deficiency of boron
A shortage of Boron might negatively influence the balance of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus resulting in bone loss, and increasing the risk of arthritis and elevated blood pressure.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of micro-elements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

No daily value has been set, but 1 - 2 milligrams per day may be beneficial, although up to 10 milligrams does seem safe.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Ingesting Boron-containing preparations have resulted in dryness of the skin and digestive upsets, but low dose supplements have shown no toxic effect yet.

!!Best used with
Best taken with manganese, calcium and Vitamin B2 (remember you need Vitamin B6 with Vitamin B2).

!!When more may be required
When eating a diet of refined foods, you may be lacking in Boron.

!!Other interesting points
Boron has not been shown clinically to build muscles, although some people firmly believe that it does.

!!Boron food sources
Prunes, dates, raisins and honey, nuts, fresh fruit such as grapes and pears, green leafy vegetables and beans are good sources or Boron.
Bromelain (also referred to as bromelian) is an enzyme capable of digesting protein and is present in pineapple stems and ripe or unripe pineapple fruits. For this reason it is also referred to as the pineapple enzyme.

!!Bromelian is required for
Bromelain has been heralded as an anti-inflammatory agent, helpful in healing minor injuries, such as sprains and strains, muscle injuries, and sports injuries. Because of these properties, it is also sometimes used for treatment of traumatic and post-operative swelling.

It is also used in fighting urinary tract infections when combined with trypsin, and because of its natural blood thinning action is helpful in preventing excessive blood platelet stickiness - indicating it to decrease thrombopheitis and angina. Since it can reduce the thickness of mucus it could be helpful to people suffering from asthma and bronchitis.

Furthermore it may also have a beneficial effect on drug absorption, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, third-degree burns, diarrhea as well as tumor growth.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No known level of bromelain exists, but an increase of heart rate has been reported, as well as occasional gastric disturbances or allergic reaction.

!!When more may be required
People suffering from angina, asthma, minor injuries as well as urinary tract infection may benefit from a bromelain supplement.

!!Other interesting points
Increased bleeding may occur when used with anticoagulants.

Bromelain has proved to be effective in fighting certain diarrhea causing bacteria (Escherichia coli), which makes it a perfect supplement to take along when traveling, since diarrhea is often encountered when traveling to strange places.

!!Food sources of bromelain
It is found in pineapples.
Calcium is needed for so many different functions in the body, from bones, to blood clotting, your muscles etc. People often think of bones as a static piece of the body, where very little change occurs, but that is a totally incorrect perception. Bone is a dynamic part of the body and calcium is constantly flowing into, and out of it.

Calcium is needed for the formation and maintenance of bones, the development of teeth and healthy gums. It is necessary for blood clotting, stabilizes many body functions and is thought to assist in ''bowel cancer''.

It has a natural calming and tranquilizing effect and is necessary for maintaining a regular heartbeat and the transmission of nerve impulses. It helps with lowering cholesterol, muscular growth, the prevention of muscle cramps and normal blood clotting.

Furthermore it also helps with protein structuring in DNA and RNA. It provides energy, breaks down fats, maintains proper cell membrane permeability, aids in neuromuscular activity and helps to keep the skin healthy. Calcium also stops lead from being absorbed into bone.

!!Deficiency of calcium
Prolonged bone re-absorption from chronic dietary deficiency results in osteoporosis - from either too little bone mass accumulation during growth or higher rate of bone loss at menopause. Dietary calcium deficiency also has been associated with increased risk of hypertension, and ''colon cancer''.

When it is in short supply, a variety of symptoms from aching joints, eczema, elevated blood cholesterol, heart palpitations, brittle nails, hypertension (high blood pressure) and insomnia can become evident.

Muscle cramps, nervousness, numbness in the arms and legs, rheumatoid arthritis, convulsions, depression and delusions have also been noted.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

1,000 mg per day for people aged 19-50 years 1,200 mg per day for people over the age of 51 years.

The maximum level of calcium is 2.5 g/day. It is also recommended one to two parts of calcium and phosphorus to one part of magnesium.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Excess calcium supplementation has been associated with some mineral imbalances such as zinc, but combined with a magnesium deficiency it may cause deposits to form in your kidneys, which could cause kidney stones.

It is recommended to take one to two parts of calcium and phosphorus to one part of magnesium. Vitamin D and vitamin A are beneficial to have around this nutrient and it is great when taking a supplement that it is chelated with amino acids.

More calcium may be needed if you suffer from osteoporosis, are lacking in Vitamin D, if you have a gum disease or eat processed foods, ingest excess protein, fat, sugar or caffeine, salt or fizzy soda drinks.

Drinking bottled water with a low mineral content could require more dietary calcium and so may the consumption of alcohol, taking a birth control pill, diuretic (water pill) antacids or if you are on hormone replacement therapy.

!!Enemy of calcium
Phosphorus, sodium, alcohol, coffee and white flour aids the loss of calcium from the body, while too much protein, fat and sugars can have a negative effect with the absorption thereof. Tetracycline and calcium bond together which impairs the absorption of both.

!!Other interesting points
Estrogen promotes deposits of calcium in the bones.

!!Food sources of calcium
Milk, milk products, beans, nuts, molasses and fruit contain good amounts of calcium. Fish and seafood, as well as green leafy vegetables supply good amounts of calcium.


Calcium, magnesium plus vitamin D, vitamin C and the amino acid glycine was formulated in a slow release tablet to ensure that you get the maximum benefit from the calcium and magnesium and to satisfy the absorption criteria.

Added to the calcium and magnesium, for the host of good they do, and the problems they prevent, we added Vitamin D and Vitamin C - they improve the absorption of the calcium and magnesium, and the added amino acid glycine, has been found to ensure more complete absorption.

Calcium and magnesium are essential minerals for the diet of all humans, and is especially important for women, but not exclusively so. These humble minerals are involved in many body functions - teeth, bone, muscles, mood - to name only a few. Start using our Calcium and Magnesium formula today to assist in preventing a host of health problems and to ensure continued vitality.

Calcium and Magnesium supplement contains the following ingredients:
|calcium carbonate|400 mg|50 % RDA*|
|magnesium oxide|150 mg|50 % RDA*|
|vitamin d |300 iu |150% RDA*|
|vitamin c |100 mg |167 % RDA*|
|glycine |75 mg |- % RDA|

''* based on intake of 3 tablets per day''


!!Why you benefit from this formula:
A deficiency of calcium or magnesium could result in a host of indications ranging from anemia, anorexia, certain back pain, irregular heartbeat, kidney stones, loss of bone density, muscle jerks and spasms, nervousness and anxiety, period pains, poor circulation, potassium depletion, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), reduced ability of the body to detoxify itself and many more.

''Calcium info''
*Calcium is needed for the formation and maintenance of bone, the development of teeth and healthy gums. It is necessary for blood clotting, stabilizes many body functions and is thought to assist in bowel cancer.
*Calcium has a natural calming and tranquilizing effect and is necessary for maintaining a regular heartbeat and the transmission of nerve impulses. It helps with lowering cholesterol, muscular growth, the prevention of muscle cramps and normal blood clotting.
*Furthermore it also helps with protein structuring in DNA and RNA. It provides energy, breaks down fats, maintains proper cell membrane permeability, aids in neuromuscular activity and helps to keep the skin healthy and also stops lead from being absorbed into bone.

''Magnesium info''
*Magnesium helps with formation of bone and teeth and assists the absorption of calcium and potassium. Where calcium stimulates the muscles, magnesium is used to relax the muscles. It is further needed for cellular metabolism and the production of energy through its help with enzyme activity It is used for muscle tone of the heart and assists in controlling blood pressure.
*Together with vitamin B 12, it may prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones. It helps prevent depression, dizziness, muscle twitching, and premenstrual syndrome. It can help prevent the calcification of soft tissue and may help prevent cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and certain forms of cancer, and it may reduce cholesterol levels.
*Magnesium assists the parathyroid gland to process vitamin D, and a shortage here can cause absorption problems with calcium.

''Vitamin D info''
*Vitamin D helps with increasing the absorption of calcium, assists in bone growth and the integrity of bone and promotes strong teeth. It also helps regulate the amount of phosphorus in the body as well as assisting in a healthy heart and nervous system.
*Vitamin D has been shown in recent studies to have great promise in assisting psoriasis as well as you immune system, thyroid function as well as normal blood clotting.

''Vitamin C info''
*Vitamin C is required in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissue, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and enhances iron bioavailability.
*Vitamin C is a great antioxidant and helps protect the body against pollutants. Because vitamin c is a biological reducing agent, it is also linked to its prevention of degenerative diseases - such as cataracts, certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
*It also promotes healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal tissue growth and repair - such as healing of wounds and burns. It assists in the prevention of blood clotting and bruising, and strengthening the walls of the capillaries.

''Glycine amino acid info''
*Glycine is required to build protein in the body and synthesis of nucleic acids, the construction of RNA as well as DNA, bile acids and other amino acids in the body.
*Glycine is further found to be useful in aiding the absorption of calcium in the body. It also helps in retarding degeneration of muscles since it helps to supply extra creatine in the body.

''Calcium deficiency''
*Absorption of calcium may be reduced by deficiency of vitamin D (that is why we include vitamin d in our formula), a high intake of dietary fiber, a diet in raw whole grains, a diet high in saturated fat and by a high phosphorus (found in fizzy drinks) and a high protein intake.
* Calcium excretion is also increased by caffeine and sodium (in salt) intake.
* Stress has also been found to increase the excretion of calcium. Refined foods are also lower in calcium than unprocessed foods. All these conditions and factors which lead to impaired absorption or loss of calcium from the body, result in a deficiency of calcium in the body and may result in a shift of calcium from bone to soft tissue.
* This may promote osteoporosis and also arteriosclerosis and high blood pressure.
* Calcium deficiency often does not resolve unless a sufficient magnesium intake is also maintained hence the inclusion of magnesium in our Calcium & Magnesium tablets.
* High intake of calcium and potassium may also prevent some of the harmful effects of excess sodium consumption, which is prevalent in our society.
* Magnesium deficiency is more prevalent than any other mineral deficiency, as the diet of many people is deficient in magnesium - rich foods. Coffee consumption has also been implicated in the increased excretion of magnesium.
* "The pill", chronic diarrhea, over-use of laxatives, stress (of all types: exertion, emotional, heat, cold, trauma, pain, anxiety and excitement) and strenuous exercise also deplete the body's magnesium stores.
* Vitamin B6 supplementation may assist in the transportation of Magnesium into the cells and thus ensure proper utilization of magnesium in the metabolic processes.

!!Symptoms and signs of calcium and/or magnesium deficiency
There are many indications that your body may have a deficiency could include some of these:
*Anemia, anorexia, some back pain may be indicative of calcium or magnesium or deficiency, chronic fatigue, chronic muscle pains, difficulty in relaxing, facial tics, hypoglycemia, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, kidney stones, loss of bone density, muscle jerks and spasms, muscle weakness, nervousness and anxiety, period pains, poor circulation, potassium depletion, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), reduced ability of the body to detoxify itself.

!!Dosage:
Three tablets daily, preferably with meals.
Calories are needed for energy in order to fuel metabolic process, growth, lactation and maintenance of body temperature. Some people think that the word calorie refers to a term in a weight loss diet, but it is really a measure of energy.

A kilocalorie, the term used by nutritionists, is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree centigrade.

!!Herewith a small selection of calorie values:
||Food Quantity (mg)|Calorie value (kcal.)|
|potatoes (fried)|100|274|
|potatoes (mashed)|100|94|
|Banana|100|85|
|Corn|100|91|
|Tomatoes|100|22|
|Chicken|100|166|
|Cod|100|170|
|Beef (lean)|100|200|
|Pork (lean)|100|283|


Carbohydrates, in the form of grains and root vegetables, are the main source of energy for most people in the world. There is no absolute requirement for dietary carbohydrates, although the brain, red blood cells, lungs, nerves, and some cells in the kidneys use glucose as a preferred source of energy.

!!Carbohydrates are required for
They are the cheapest way to supply energy to the human body and an adequate supply of carbohydrates in the diet spares protein from being broken down for energy, leaving it intact for other growth and maintenance functions.

In countries such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East, about 70 - 80% of calories are supplied by carbohydrates, while the intake of calories from sugar sources are higher in more developed countries.

They are formed in plant material where solar energy is converted to chemical energy in the photosynthesis process, to carbohydrates - either in simple sugars or complex carbohydrates.

Monosaccharides (especially glucose) is the first to be formed and then combining to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.

To look at further information on the structures - have a look at:

*[[Simple Sugars]]
**[[Monosaccharides]]
***[[Glucose (Dextrose)]]
***[[Fructose (Levulose)]]
***[[Galactose]]
**[[Sugar Alcohol]]
**[[Alcohol and ethanol]]
**[[Disaccharides]]
***[[Sucrose]]
***[[Maltose (malt sugar)]]
***[[Lactose]]
**[[Trisaccharides (and Raffinose)]]
*[[Complex Carbohydrates]]
**[[Dextrin]]
**[[Starch]]
***[[Modified starch]]
**[[Cellulose]]
**[[Methylcellulose]]
**[[Glycogen]]
**[[Polysaccharides]]
***[[Pectin]]
The liver can also manufacture carbohydrates by converting amino acids, especially when dietary carbohydrates and sugars are too low, in order to maintain energy supply in the body.

!!Deficiency of carbohydrates
When a person is on a carbohydrate-free diet, protein is used as energy source but the excessive breakdown of proteins to sugars can lead to excessive ketones being formed in the liver and in strict studies these people exhibited the same symptoms as those on a starvation regimen.

Symptoms include abnormal fat metabolism, breakdown of body protein, increased sodium excretion, loss of energy and fatigue. It has been found that small amounts of carbohydrates, between 50 to 100 g, can prevent these symptoms.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No direct diet recommendation exists, but the average intake for females is around 177 gram, and for men 287 gram per day.

!!Toxicity
No toxicity exists for carbohydrates.
Carnitine is really not an amino acid, but because of the close structural sameness, it is normally classed with amino acids, and is also known as vitamin BT. It is available as D-carnitine, L-carnitine, DL-carnitine as well as acetyl-L-carnitine, but with L-carnitine being the most popular type. L-Carnitine is synthesized from the essential amino acids lysine and methionine, but enough vitamin B1 (thiamine) and B6 (pyridoxine) must be available.

Unlike a true amino acid, it is not used in protein synthesis nor as neurotransmitter, but is used for long-chain fatty acid transport and is required for entry of these long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cell, as well as for the removal of short-chain organic acids from the mitochondria, which frees the intra-mitochondrial coenzyme.

It is therefore important for the energy supply within the cell, as well as muscles, assists in preventing fatty build-up in areas such as the heart, liver, and skeletal muscles.

It may also reduce the risk of poor fat metabolism in diabetes, alcohol-induced fatty liver as well as the risk of heart problems. Carnitine has also been shown to improve the antioxidant effect of vitamin C as well as E.

!!Deficiency of carnitine
Primarily, carnitine deficiency occurs because of a genetic defect preventing carnitine transport and a deficiency may result in confusion, heart pain, muscular weakness as well as obesity.

!!Dosage
Dosages listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Since carnitine can be manufactured in the body, supplementation of carnitine is not essential.

Most infant formulas that do not contain carnitine and could be supplemented with carnitine to the levels found in human milk, 11.3 mg/L (70 mmol/L) – but consult your medical professional regarding this matter.

Men normally require more carnitine than women, because of heavier body mass.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
None known but supplements in excess of 3,000 mg (19 mmol) of carnitine per day may cause diarrhea and/or "fish odor" syndrome.

When more may be required

Because of more muscle mass, men normally require more carnitine.

!!Other interesting points
Carnitine may have functions in cellular metabolism such as plasma membrane fatty acid remodeling, gene regulation and modulation of cytokine concentrations in experimental sepsis and cancer cachexia.

Esters of carnitine (acetyl- and propionylcarnitine) may have pharmacological value, by virtue of their antioxidant properties and/or ability to deliver readily oxidizable carbon units to mitochondria, in chronic disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in angina pectoris.

The long-term administration of acetyl-L-carnitine to aged rats restores a synaptic pattern comparable to that of young rats. With the exception of the tocopherols all the antioxidants had lower concentrations in the Substantia nigra, which showed the most severe neuronal depletion with age. Acetyl-L-carnitine is being investigated as a determinant of neuronal longevity.

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), is regarded with interest because of its capacity to counteract several physiological and pathological modifications typical of brain aging processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ALCAR can counteract the age-dependent reduction of several receptors in the central nervous system of rodents, such as the NMDA receptor system, the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) receptors, those of glucocorticoids, neurotransmitters and others, thereby enhancing the efficiency of synaptic transmission, which is considerably slowed down by aging and appears to reverse age-associated deficits in cellular function, in part by increasing cellular ATP production.

!!Food sources
Carnitine is found in good amounts in red meat, while fish, chicken and milk are also high in carnitine, while vegetables and grains contain very little of this nutrient.


Cellulose is found in the framework of plant material, and although the human body can not digest cellulose, it still has value to the human body.

Because the human body does not contain an enzyme to break down the structure of this carbohydrate, it is used to add bulk in the diet, which is necessary for proper peristaltic actions of the intestines.
Centella asiatica (also known as gotu kola, Indian Pennywort and Mandookaparni) has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb and was referred to in the French pharmacopoeia in 1884, as well as the ancient traditional Chinese Shennong Herbal some 2,000 years ago, as well in Indian Ayurvedic medicine some 3,000 years ago.

!!Centella asiatica has been used for 
Wound healing, better circulation, memory enhancement, cancer, vitality, general tonic, respiratory ailments, detoxifying the body, treatment of skin disorders (such as psoriasis and eczema), revitalizing connective tissue, burn and scar treatment, clearing up skin infections, slimming and edema, arthritis, rheumatism, treatment of liver and kidneys, periodontal disease, strengthening of veins (varicose veins), blood purifier, high blood pressure, sedative, anti-stress, anti-anxiety, an aphrodisiac, immune booster, anabolic and adaptogen etc.

None of these above claims have been evaluated by the FDA, but research has been done by various institutes and universities, which concluded that more research is called for on this ancient herb.

Although somebody once said "if it sounds too good to be true, it usually is" - I am not sure that this applies to this herb, as the qualities exhibited by it, have been used for centuries and are still in use today - for that reason, I do believe that there must be truth in the anecdotal claims made on behalf of this herb. (This herb is in the ''same class as apple cider vinegar''.)

!!Ingredients
It contains a variety of ingredients, but the active ingredients are asiaticoside (a triterpene glycoside) (triterpenoid), brahmoside and brahminoside (both saponin glycosides), madecassoside (a glycoside with strong anti-inflammatory properties), madecassic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin K, asparate, glutamate, serine, threonine, alanine, lysine, histidine, magnesium, calcium and sodium.

It contains no caffeine (it is sometimes confused with kola nut, which contains high caffeine content) yet it is used extensively to increase energy and vitality. The reason for this might be because it is said to assist with ''increasing the blood sugar level'', which in turn would prevent hypoglycemia, mental fatigue, depression, confusion as well as schizophrenic tendencies - or it could be because of the high concentration of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) which assists to convert carbohydrates into glucose as well as normal nervous system functioning.

In animal testing it was also shown that centella (together with capsicum and Siberian ginseng) can assist in overcoming the negative effects of ''fatigue and stress''.

In traditional African health it has been used for the treatment of leprosy (the asiaticoside content dissolves the waxy coating of the leprosy bacteria -allowing the immune system to destroy the bacteria), bronchitis, asthma, syphilis and wound healing; in India it has for the last 3,000 years of Ayurvedic medicine been used for wound healing, a mild diuretic, increasing concentration, alertness, as well as anti-anxiety and anti-stress; in the Far East it is used for treatment of depression, longevity, (in China it is called the "Fountain of Youth")

In our modern day pharmaceutical world (a fact acknowledged by a major multi-national pharmaceutical manufacturer, since they make a centella extract as well) it is often used as an active ingredient in tonics, oral slimming formulas, body-beautiful preparations, body firming products, wound healing, ''anti-aging skin care products'' (independent studies have shown the topical effectiveness between centella and treating stretch marks).

Great stock is also put by using this herb for bedridden and post-operative patients for a couple of reasons - wound healing, preventing bedsores, epithelial ulcers, as well as helping prevent muscular atrophy.

Its beneficial effects on the venous system is of great help to people suffering from diverse problems such as varicose veins, gastric ulcers, phlebitis, hemorrhoids, etc. In this action the centella helps in strengthening the capillaries and veins and in so doing assists with better blood circulation.

With its effect on connective tissue great value is achieved with the synthesis of collagen, thickening of the skin (a great anti-aging property - as we age our skins become thinner), increasing the tensile strength of the flesh, wound healing, repair of damaged tissue as well as promoting hair and nail growth.

In a French study done in 1966 it was found that it had a significant healing effect when used after episiotomy - a surgical cut of the vulva to prevent tearing during childbirth. The cut healed more rapidly than with standard treatment.

Other anti-aging properties that this herb is said to promote is an increase in hemoglobin, and a decrease of urea and acid phosphates levels in the blood.

Although Yogis have used this herb to increase their meditation abilities through better concentration, focus and alertness, this herb has also shown great promise in improving mental retardation and increasing IQ.

It has been used for centuries in the treatment of liver and kidney problems, and has once again become popular as an alternative treatment for people suffering from hepatitis as well as alcoholic liver disease.

When ''detoxifying'' the body it is also helpful to look for help from centella, as it assists with destroying toxic accumulation in the brain as well as the nerves, while it helps to clear the body from heavy metals as well as drugs -including recreational drugs.

In alternative health this herb is used to treat tumors and cancerous growths, without suppressing the auto immune system or creating toxic wastes within the body.

!!Dosage, toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No RDA or dosage has been determined but fresh leaves can be used in salads, or dried leaves can also be used to make tea. Supplements are also available in varying strengths.

Nausea has been reported at very high levels of intake.

It should not be taken internally as a supplement by children under 4 or breast-feeding / pregnant mothers. People taking sedatives should also not use centella as a supplement.

 
Chloride is formed when chlorine gas dissolves in water but is also a dietary mineral needed by the body for optimum health.

!!Chloride is required for
Chloride in the diet works with potassium and sodium, the two electrolytes, to control the flow of fluid in blood vessels and tissues, as well as regulating acidity in the body, and also forms part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

!Deficiency of chloride
A deficiency of chloride is extremely rare and unlikely to occur but a deficiency of chlorine in the body may cause excessive loss of potassium in the urine, weakness and lowered blood pressured.

!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
A high concentration of chloride in the body may result in fluid retention, but sodium is normally the culprit for the retention.

When more may be required

When you suffer from vomiting, diarrhea and excessive sweating you might be in need of extra chlorine.

!!Other interesting points
The chlorine in tap water, used for purification, normally evaporates when boiled.

!!Food sources
Chloride is found in table salt as well as kelp, olives, tomatoes, celery etc.

Choline's metabolism is closely interrelated to that of methionine, and methyl-folate, yet choline is at times treated by some nutritional specialists as a stepchild in nutrition.

!!Choline is required for
Choline assists in controlling your weight as well as cholesterol levels, keeping cell membranes healthy and in preventing gallstones. It is also most useful in the maintenance of the nervous system, assisting memory and learning, and may help to fight infections, including hepatitis and AIDS. Choline is critical for normal membrane structure and function.

Choline is the major precursor of betaine, and it is used by the kidneys to maintain water balance and by the liver as a source of methyl-groups for methionine formation. It is also used to produce the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

It assists in nerve impulse transmission, gallbladder regulation, liver functions and lecithin production.

!!Deficiency of choline
A deficiency of choline does not happen easily but if it is deficient it may lead to liver disease, raised cholesterol levels, high blood pressure as well as kidney problems, Choline deficiency may also manifest itself in the inability to digest fats, stunted growth and fatty buildup in the liver.

Memory and brain function could also be impaired.

!!Dosage
*The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.
*The dosage is relative to the amount of fats ingested in the diet, but for a guide you can use male 550 mg/ per day and female 425 mg per day, although mega dose vitamin proponents use far higher dosages.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
*The maximum level of choline has been set for safety at 3.5 g/day.
*Taking too much choline could result in your body smelling fishy, may cause nausea, depression, and could trigger existing epilepsy. Hypotension, sweating, salivation and diarrhea have also been reported.

!!Best used with
Should be taken in the same dose as inositol and together with the B group vitamins as well as vitamin A and linoleic acid

!!When more choline may be required
Should you consume alcohol, refined sugar or taking large amounts of nicotinic acid you might need extra choline.

!!Enemy of element
Choline is lost in food processing, storage and cooking.

!!Other interesting points
Choline, together with fat, inositol and essential unsaturated fatty acids make up lecithin, and needs a co-enzyme containing vitamin B6, and magnesium to be produced.

If lecithin is in short supply it may allow your blood cholesterol levels to become elevated.

!!Food sources
Choline is found in egg yolks, beef, wheat germ, oats, nuts
Chromium is an essential nutrient required for normal sugar and fat metabolism and works primarily by potentiating the action of insulin. It is present in the entire body but with the highest concentrations in the liver, kidneys, spleen and bone.

Although chromium is only required in very small amounts, our modern day diet has left many people short of chromium on a daily basis, with the average American being chromium deficient, and two out of three being hypoglycemic, pre-hypoglycemic or diabetic.

!!Chromium is required for
Chromium is needed for energy, maintains stable blood sugar levels. In cooperation with other substances, it controls insulin as well as certain enzymes. It works with GTF (Glucose Tolerance Factor) when this hormone-affiliated agent enters the bloodstream because of an increase of insulin in the bloodstream.

GTF (containing niacin, vitamin B3, glycine, cysteine, glutamic acid etc.) enhances insulin, which results in the sugars passing quicker into the cells and in that way they are removed from the bloodstream. By stabilizing the blood sugar level it also assists in regulating the cholesterol in the blood.

Natural chromium levels decline with age and so with the action of the GTF. Although chromium picolinate is readily absorbed by the body, and is one of the best types of chromium when it comes to absorption, it will only be absorbed it if there is a shortage of chromium.

Chromium picolinate has been used as a carbohydrate-burning supplement for some time and has proved very successful. (Chromium picolinate is chromium chelated with picolinate - a natural amino acid metabolite) It is also required in synthesis of fats, protein and carbohydrates, and may assist in preventing coronary artery disease.

!!Deficiency of chromium
A shortage of chromium may also lead to anxiety, fatigue, glucose intolerance (particularly in people with diabetes), inadequate metabolism of amino acids, and an increased risk of arteriosclerosis.

!!Dosage
*The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.
*In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.
*120 gram per day is indicated as dosage.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Because chromium is not easily absorbed (chromium picolinate is the best absorbed) and since it is lost easily in the urine, toxicity does not seem to be a problem, but dermatitis has been noted, as well gastrointestinal ulcers as well as liver and kidney damage if taken in large dosages over prolonged periods.

If you are diabetic, do not supplement with chromium, as it can make your blood sugar levels drop. Some people have reported a skin rash and lightheadedness - if this occurs, stop taking the supplement and consult your medical practitioner.

!!Best used with
It is best taken with vitamin B 3, glycine, cysteine and glutamic acid.

!!When more chromium may be required
Should you be suffering from overweight, high cholesterol, exercise heavily or have sugar cravings, you might benefit from a chromium supplement.

!!Enemy of element
Chromium absorption is made more difficult when milk, as well as when foods high in phosphorus are eaten at the same time.

!!Other interesting points
Chromium picolinate is chromium chelated with picolinate -a natural amino acid metabolite and is helpful in assisting with the loss of fat and increased lean muscle tissue. Chromium picolinate in this form is the most bio-available. Avoid chromium chloride, which is found in some supplements. It is mostly un-absorbable

!!Food sources
Chromium is found in eggs, beef, whole grains, brewer's yeast as well as molasses.

Citrulline is found in high concentration in the liver. Citrulline is not a component of any major proteins or enzymes, and therefore not much information is contained on this page.

!!Citrulline is required for
The amino acid citrulline is required to detoxify the liver from ammonia, which is a waste product of the body from oxidation.

Citrulline promotes energy and assists with the immune system. This unusual amino acid is formed in the urea cycle by the addition of carbon dioxide and ammonia to ornithine.

It is then combined with aspartic acid to form arginosuccinic acid, which later is metabolized into the amino acid arginine.

!!Dosage
Dosages listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Cobalt is part of the vitamin B 12 molecule.

!!Cobalt is required for
It is required in the manufacture of red blood cells and in preventing anemia.

!!Deficiency of cobalt
If a normal diet is followed a deficiency is most unlikely.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind. 

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
An excessively high intake of cobalt may damage the heart muscles, and may cause an over-production of red blood cells or damage to the thyroid gland.

!!Other interesting points
Since cobalt is part of the vitamin B12 molecule, the function of cobalt is interwoven with that of vitamin B 12.

!!Food sources
Cobalt is present in pulses and vegetables.
Coenzyme Q10 is a powerful natural occurring compound, promoting chemical reactions, protecting the body from free radicals, and is also called ubiquinone. Some disagreement exists regarding its classification, where some are of the opinion that it is in reality a vitamin or vitamin-like substance.

!!Coenzyme Q 10 is required for
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is naturally present in foods, and can be synthesized by the body from the amino acid tyrosine during a multistage (17 stages) process requiring eight vitamins and several trace elements.

One of the best-known effects of this compound is its antioxidant qualities as well as the control it exercises on the flow of oxygen within cells, assistance with cardiovascular functioning, the production of energy, its assistance with absorption of other nutrients as well as its immune boosting properties.

Studies on mice showed an increase of 50% extension of life span.

It is the Coenzyme Q10 that is the coenzyme for at least three mitochondrial enzymes as well as other enzymes in the cell. The mitochondrial enzymes are essential for the production of high-energy adenosine phosphates (ATP).

It has been found to be effective with a variety of health problems, and great promise has been shown in assisting with cancer treatment, protecting patients undergoing chemotherapy. Studies showed that patients taking 90 mg of this compound experienced less pain and increase in appetite and decreased metastases.

Studies using 300 -900 mg, reported partial or total remission. People who stay thin and slim, yet eat a lot have much higher levels of this compound in their blood, and it also assists with fuel efficiency within the cells, which also assists weight loss.

People suffering from periodontal disease may also be deficient in this compound, as it has a protective and strengthening action in all tissues. (This is why it is also beneficial to the heart muscle.)

!!Deficiency of Coenzyme Q10
When we are deficient of this compound in our system, our general health will start deteriorating and should levels drop 25% below the optimum levels, many diseases may start progressing, diseases like high blood pressure, heart attack, angina, immune depression, periodontal disease, lack of energy and weight gain.

People suffering from congestive heart failure and taking coenzyme Q10 should NOT stop taking it suddenly since sudden withdrawal may intensify the symptoms of congestive heart failure.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No recommendation has been set.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity and side effects are not known, but pregnant or breast-feeding mothers should not take it in supplement form.

In extreme dosages, such as 600 - 1200 mg per day headaches, heartburn, fatigue, diarrhea and skin reactions have been reported.

!!Best used with
Since the compounds are fat soluble, it is best to take it with dietary fat present.

When more may be required

Should the liver perform under par, it cannot manufacture Q10 from the other Q coenzymes, and this production also diminish with age.

People suffering from angina, HIV, male infertility, diabetes, periodontal disease, high blood pressure, cancer and receiving chemotherapy could benefit from an increase in CoQ10.

!!Food sources of Coenzyme Q10
Good sources are found in beef, soy, mackerel, sardines, spinach, peanuts, soybeans and vegetable oil.


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In order to achieve better stability and storage of energy, larger units of storage than sugar is called for, and this is where we find the benefits of these particular nutrients.

They are less soluble than sugars, and the digestibility of these complex carbohydrates also vary from type to type - from being readily digestible by humans to being not digestible - such as [[Cellulose]] and hemicelluloses.
Copper and zinc absorption is closely related, and although copper is also needed in relatively small amounts, some discussions are under way on the optimum need of this mineral. If large amounts of copper are present, then zinc and vitamin C is reduced in the body, and vice versa.

!!Copper is required for
Copper is required in the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells as well as bones, while it helps with the formation of elastin as well as collagen - making it necessary for wound healing.

A lack of copper may also lead to increased blood fat levels. It is also necessary for the manufacture of the neurotransmitter noradrenaline as well as for the pigmentation of your hair.

!!Deficiency of copper
It can be stored in the body, and daily presence in the diet is therefore not necessary. If copper is deficient in the body, iron is also normally in short supply, leading to anemia as well as the likelihood for infections, osteoporosis, thinning of bones, thyroid gland dysfunction, heart disease as well as nervous system problems.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of micro-elements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important and about 2 mg per day is required.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxic levels will lead to diarrhea, vomiting, liver damage as well as discoloration of the skin and hair, while mild excesses will result in fatigue, irritability, depression and loss of concentration and learning disabilities.

Children getting too much copper may have hyperactive tendencies.

!!Best used with
Copper is best absorbed and utilized in the body when cobalt, iron, zinc and folic acid is available.

When more copper may be required

Should extra zinc supplements be taken, your need for copper may be increased.

!!Enemy of copper
The absorption of large amounts of vitamin C, zinc can negatively influence the level of copper in the body, while large amounts of fructose can make a copper deficiency worse.

!!Other interesting points
Be careful of having any liquids stored in copper containers, as the liquid could have absorbed too much of the copper.

!!Food sources
Copper is made available from a variety of foods, such as whole grain, liver, molasses, and nuts, but water from copper pipes will also carry copper in it, and copper cooking utensils will also add more copper to be ingested.

Creatine is NOT a vitamin, mineral, herb, hormone, stimulant or steroid but is found naturally in the human body, and in most animals as well, where it is contained to nearly 95% in the muscles, and the rest in other body parts.

!!Creatine is required for
Creatine can be manufactured by the body from the amino acid arginine and methionine and is synthesized in the liver, pancreas and kidneys.

Unfortunately you would need to eat about 10 pounds of meat to have the same amount of creatine as you would get by taking 20 grams of creatine monohydrate.

It is used extensively for building muscles and increasing lean body mass and is needed as primary energy source for muscle contractions and it exists in two different forms - free, which is chemically unbound, or in a phosphate form.

ATP - this provides the energy by releasing one of its phosphate molecules -thereby converting to ADP. When this happens the creatine comes in handy -giving back a phosphate molecule to the ADP and recreating ATP.

ATP production is reliant on creatine monohydrate being available in the body - if it is available, more synthesis of this compound can occur, which prevents an over demand on the glycolysis pathway, where glucose is metabolized for energy.

Should the glycolysis pathway be used extensively, a greater amount of lactic acid is formed as waste product - which is what causes the burning sensation during exercising.

Should you then use a supplement to help you rely less on the glycolysis pathway, and instead use the ATP / ADP route, you will be able to exercise longer and harder without a lactic acid build-up with less fatigue and a shorter recovery time after the physical exertion.

!!Deficiency of creatine
In double blind, placebo controlled studies, creatine supplementation showed impressive results in exercise results, as well as in weight training. Less fatigue and a reduction of "burning" muscles were also experienced.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.
*To increase intramuscular creatine stores, take 20g per day for the first six days. The 20g may be split into 2 to 4 doses of 10g to 5g per dose.
*After this dosage a maintenance dose of 2,5 to 5 g per day should be taken, usually as a single daily dose.
*Each dose of creatine should be taken with some form of carbohydrate, as this increases uptake into the skeletal muscle.
*Creatine dosage should be adjusted to your individual needs, or as advised by your health or nutritional practitioner.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No adverse effects have been reported but the effect of long term use have not been determined.

!!Best used with
Take it with some form of carbohydrate.

When more may be required

Bodybuilding, weight training or during vigorous exercise programs.

!!Food sources of creatine
Beef, pork, turkey, fish and chicken.

Creatine is the nutritional supplement all sportsmen and sportswomen are talking about, and using. Some confusion exist about creatine. It is a naturally occurring substance produced in the body by the liver. Creatine is also part of your normal diet, since it is found in fish, meat and other animal products.

!!Creatine is required for
Creatine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle in the form of phosphocreatine, where it is important in providing fuel to the working muscle. It is important for energy provision for any type of physical activity, but is particularly valuable in those sports where rapid, high-intensity bursts of activity are required. When creatine stores are depleted in muscle the energy producing capacity of muscle is reduced.

Why you benefit from this 100 % pure formula:

With our PURE creatine supplement your body has direct access to it for usage when exercising, making recovery time less, while assisting the development of muscles and increasing the energy manufacturing capabilities of the muscles.

Because our formula is PURE creatine, you do not pay for useless "padding" so many people mix with their creatine formulas - you only get pure creatine - plain and simple with no other ingredients mixed with it.

What is CREATINE?
* Creatine can be manufactured by the body from the amino acid arginine and methionine and is synthesized in the liver, pancreas and kidneys.
* It is needed as primary energy source for muscle contractions and it exists in two different forms - free, which is chemically unbound, or in a phosphate form.
* It is used extensively for building muscles and increasing lean body mass.
* Creatine is also ingested in the diet as it is found in fish, meat and other animal products.
* Creatine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle in the form of phosphocreatine, where it is important in providing fuel to the working muscle.
* Creatine is therefore important for energy provision for any type of physical activity, but is particularly valuable in those sports where rapid, high-intensity bursts of activity are required.
* When creatine stores are depleted in muscle the energy producing capacity of muscle is reduced. It has been shown that creatine supplementation can increase the stores of creatine in the muscle by between 20 and 50%, but this is extremely variable from athlete to athlete.
* It is known that vegetarian athlete increase the creatine stores in muscle to a greater extent than those that eat meat.

Ingredients:
Creatine Monohydrate 250 g

 1/4 pound

!!Creatine Dosage:
see [[Creatine]]

Curing a cold is problematic to most people - happening at regular intervals, with normal orthodox medication relieving the symptoms, but in doing so, causing side effects that are unpleasant.

!!Curing a cold - try this
Vitamins can be used as an alternative health and nutritional therapy to assist in the cure of this common ailment.

This proven nutritional substance will greatly relieve some of the symptoms, and if used in the correct dosage, it will not cause any undesirable side effects.

This cheap and reliable way is one of the therapies available to most people to effectively combat this problem.

*Our pure vitamin C with Bioflavonoids can help assist with the common cold effectively - click here to view all the benefits of vitamin C.
*Our herbal and vitamin supplement - BodyGuard - has also helped thousands of people to beat the winter miseries and to shake off that persistent cold and flu - for more info click here on BodyGuard.
Cysteine is a sulfur containing non-essential amino acid and is closely related to cystine, as cystine consists of two cysteine molecules joined together. It is an unstable nutrient and easily converts to cystine, but this does not cause a problem, since both can convert into the other – as required by the body.

!!Cysteine required for
Your skin, as well as detoxification of your body, requires cysteine. It is found in beta-keratin, the main protein in nails, skin as well as hair. It not only is important in collagen production but also assists in skin elasticity and texture.

Cysteine is also required in the manufacture of the amino acid taurine and is a component of the antioxidant gluthione. It is useful to detoxify the body from harmful toxins and help protect the brain and liver from damage from alcohol, drugs etc.

It has also been found that it may help in strengthening the protective lining of the stomach as well as intestines, which may help prevent damage caused by aspirin and similar drugs.

Cysteine is also critical to the metabolism of a number of essential biochemicals including coenzyme A, heparin, biotin, lipoid acid, and glutathione.

!!Deficiency of cysteine
No direct deficiencies have been reported as such.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

General dosage is not known but as supplement cysteine is used at 200 mg two to three times per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
None known, but damage to nerve cells in rats has been reported in very high dosage, and research data is still being waited upon.

People suffering from diabetes and cystinuria should be careful of cysteine supplements.

!!Best used with
Best taken with selenium vitamin B6 and vitamin E.

!!When more may be required
People suffering from AIDS/HIV may benefit from cysteine in proper amounts, as low levels are normally reported in people with this problem.

!!Food sources of cysteine
The body can synthesize cysteine from the amino acid methionine but is also found in high protein foods such as poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs as well as garlic, onions and red peppers.

Cystine is a crystalline, sulfur-containing amino acid, formed from two molecules of the amino acid cysteine. It can be converted to cysteine by reduction and was discovered in 1810 but was not recognized as a component of proteins until 1899, when it was isolated from animal horn – it is particularly abundant in skeletal and connective tissues, hair and digestive enzymes. The steps followed in the formation of cystine and cysteine, is from methionine to cystathionine and then to cysteine to cystine. For more information please see Cysteine as well.

!!Cystine is required for
Required for proper vitamin B6 utilization and is also helpful in the healing of burns and wounds, breaking down mucus deposits in illnesses such as bronchitis as well as cystic fibrosis.

Cysteine also assists in the supply of insulin to the pancreas, which is needed for the assimilation of sugars and starches.

It increases the level of glutathione in the lungs, liver, kidneys and bone marrow, and this may have an anti-aging effect on the body by reducing age-spots etc.

It has been shown as a detoxification agent to protect the body against damage of alcohol and cigarette smoking, and may be effective in preventing hangovers, as well as preventing liver and brain damage.

!!Deficiency of cystine
In chronic diseases it appears that the formation of cysteine from methionine is prevented, resulting in a deficiency.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
People suffering from diabetes should be careful when taking supplementation, as it could inactivate insulin.

Dextrin occurs as an intermediate product of starch hydrolysis and is achieved by either enzymatic action or by cooking.

They do not have the same thickening qualities of starch and the molecules are also smaller than that of starch.

It is formed when bread or cereals are browned or toasted.
Disaccharides in your diet

Disaccharides are sugars containing two hexose units, such as sucrose in cane sugar, maltose in malt sugar and lactose in milk sugar.

These sugars are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides in the digestive tract by specific enzymes and each of these specific sugars - sucrose, maltose and lactose - have a role to play in human nutrition.
The herb echinacea is originally a North American Indian remedy and stimulates various aspects of the immune system (such as the macrophages and natural killer cells) and is helpful in energizing certain white blood cells and having anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, which makes it a powerful ally to have when wishing to bolster the immune system as well as the lymphatic system.

!!Echinacea is used for
Echinacea is indicated for use in problem areas stemming from an under-functioning immune system and is also of benefit to the lymphatic system.

It is often used in the treatment of colds, flu, colic and other infectious illnesses, while it is also useful in anti-inflammatory conditions such as tonsillitis and chest infections and is said to reduce sensitivity to allergies. Various clinical studies have shown varied success of this herb in the treatment of the common cold.

This herb is also known as the purple or prairie coneflower, snakeroot and hedgehog and is part of the daisy family. There are nine different echinacea species, but only three are used medicinally - being Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida & Echinacea purpurea. Although some quarters claim that certain of the species are more effective than others, some experiments indicate that the effects of the different species are nearly the same.

It contains a selection of compounds such as: arabinose, betaine, copper, echinacen, echinacin B, echinacoside, echinolone, enzymes, fructose, galactose, glucose, glucuronic acid, glycosides, humulence, inulin, inuloid, iron, pentadecadiene, phenolics, polyacetylene compounds, poly-saccharides, potassium, rhamnose, sucrose, sulfur, tannins, xylose as well as vitamin A, C & E.

This natural "antibiotic" and infection fighter is useful to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi as well as other microbes that can cause infection and disease. Over-and-above the stimulating effect has on the immune system, it also is helpful in stimulating the production of interferon - which is a virus fighting substance.

The advisability of using echinacea while suffering from HIV infection is however not clear, and people with HIV should first discuss supplementation of echinacea with their health care professional before taking it.

It is an immunostimulant and inhibits hyaluronidase activity and stimulates the activity of the adrenal cortex. The inhibitory activity of lipoxygenase accounts for its anti-inflammatory activity.

If taken orally echinacea can assist the body's immune system from not catching colds and flu easily, but is also useful in limiting the duration and severity of infections.

It is also useful in middle ear infection, urinary tract infection, sore throat, herpes infections, and bronchitis as well as sinus infections.

Great sums of money are currently being spent by large multi-national pharmaceutical corporations on further research, by prestigious universities, on the benefits of this humble little plant, and we can expect that echinacea will be used far wider in allopathic medicine in the near future.

!!Contra-indications of echinacea
If you are allergic to any herb of the daisy family you may have an allergic reaction to echinacea and the oral intake of echinacea may also worsen the symptoms of people suffering from lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis.

In order to have energy to fulfill our daily tasks, we need to obtain energy from our diet, and an under-supply of the correct nutrients could lead to several deficiencies as well as a lack of energy, while an over-supply of "energy" in the form of food could lead to obesity.

In determining the BMR (basal metabolic rate) certain general principles were accepted, such as the person being engaged in a "light" occupation, with 8 hours sleep, 12 hours of very light work, 3 hours of light work and 1 hour of moderate activity.

For a 70kg male person the total calories were determined at around 2700 per day, while the 58 kg female was pegged at about 2000 kcal per day.

This is calculated as follows:

Basal need of 1 kcal per kg per hour.

Weight in kilogram x 24 = the BMR for 1 day x 1.50 = total estimated energy requirement per day.

Although this is a very general indication, it helps to indicate the estimated energy requirement per day.
Enzymes are a part of every metabolic process in the body - they are also important in the proper functioning of the immune system. Enzymes, or the lack thereof, can be related to almost every known disease. Enzymes not only play a role in digestion, but also during disease and other metabolic processes.

!!Why you benefit from this formula
We formulated this supplement with great care taken with the actual formulation in relation to content and quantities, and have included the following ingredients:

''Protease info''
*Protease enzyme is used to break down amino acids, and make them available to the body, and this important compound is also being used in therapies such as oncology, inflammatory conditions and immune control.
*It is also valuable in assisting the body to fight infections and onslaughts from viruses, fungi, parasites and bacteria. Protease from aspergillis (Aspergillus Niger / Aspergillus oryzae) may also be able to assist in breaking down dietary proteins and polypeptides which have leaked into the bloodstream as food antigens.

''Amylase info''
*Amylase is required to digest carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into smaller units (disaccharides), and eventually converting them into even smaller units (monosaccharides) such as glucose.
*Amylase is also involved in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine and similar substances.

''Lipase info''
*Lipase is required in the digesting of fats and lipids, and they are more difficult to break down since they have to be carried by a water based transport system -the blood and lymph.
*Although fat digestion is not concentrated in the stomach, gastric lipase is the digestant to attend to this, and will digest egg yolk and cream, since they are already emulsified fats. In order for fat to be digested properly, the liver starts this process emulsifying the large fat molecules, and bile breaks it down to small droplets, allowing the lipase to start its work. [ ordering at bottom of the page ]

''Lactase info''
*Lactase is required the digestion of milk and milk products.
*Some people do not produce enough lactase and are often referred to as lactose intolerant, and symptoms may include cramps, gas as well as diarrhea.
*It has also been suggested that lactose intolerant people have a problem with calcium absorption, and this may also need to be checked, by a lactose intolerant person.

''Enzymes''
*All our organs, tissues and cells are all run by metabolic enzymes, in other words all the processes necessary for life are mediated by enzymes. Minerals, vitamins, and hormones need enzymes to be present in order to do their work properly. Enzymes are the labor force of the body.
*Enzymes break down toxic substances so that the body can eliminate them without damaging the eliminative organs.
*Our foods are enzyme - deficient, causing imbalances in our organs, acting as a predisposing cause of disease

!!Enzymes and their relationship to disease
*Enzymes not only play a role in digestion, but also during disease and other metabolic processes.
*Because enzymes are a part of every metabolic process in the body - they comprise an important part of the proper functioning of the immune system. Enzymes can be related to almost every known disease.
*Enzymes act as scavengers in the body. They latch onto foreign substances and convert them to a disposable form. They also prevent the arteries from clogging up and joints from becoming gummed up.
*It was previously thought that the pancreas produced all of these enzymes, it is now known that the pancreas could not produce the volume and variety of enzymes required by the body.
*Enzymes are used up daily in the process of digestion and are lost in the sweat, urine and feces. Most cells and tissues of the body produce enzymes. The body must supply a large amount of digestive enzymes because the heating process destroys a large amount of the enzymes that were once present in the food during cooking.
*It is important to remember that enzymes in raw food aid in the digestive process and that their action removes the stress of having to borrow them from the body's own reserve, particularly from the white blood cell count.
*White blood cells are a crucial part of our immune system and their optimal activity is essential for the body to provide maximal defense against the invasion of micro-organisms that potentially cause disease. During the course of a chronic disease the immune system shows signs of depletion of enzymes.
*Our enzyme levels must be maintained at any expense to ensure vitality, endurance, and to prevent disease. If our diet does not provide the enzymes required, it is imperative that they are supplied from an external source, such as Zest for Life Enzymes.
*Enzyme deficiencies can be the cause of circulatory diseases, high blood pressure and other blood vessel related problems. In particular the enzyme lipase is involved in these diseases.
*Lipase is the enzyme that digests, dissolves and helps break down fats throughout the body.
*Some researchers have found individuals who had arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and slow fat absorption to be deficient in lipase.
*Fat that is not properly digested may be absorbed in the incompletely digested state and cause disease.
*The more digestion that takes place before food reaches the small intestine, the better for the integrity, strength and immunity of the whole body. If the food ingested does not contain sufficient enzymes, the body will be stressed to provide these enzymes. A food supplement of enzymes can prevent this occurring.
*Enzymes may be used not only to maintain health, but also during detoxification programs. Enzymes can be used in both medical and non-medical approaches to healing.
*They can be the support system to all systems and to health-promotion processes. Since digestion takes place in the stomach and in the small intestine, enzymes that have activity in both these areas of the gastrointestinal tract will aid the body more than enzymes that work just in one section of the digestive tract.
*The stomach and small intestine have different pH values; this means that enzymes or combinations of enzymes that are active over a wide pH range are the most beneficial.
*The enzymes combined in the Zest for Life Enzyme Boost Formula, are active over the entire pH range experienced in these two regions.
*The enzymes in Zest for Life Enzymes Boost Formula are capable of breaking down, digesting food elements throughout the entire digestive tract.
*When digestion is sluggish or the enzyme level is low, as is often found in the elderly, the food ferments and causes gas, bloating, constipation, colitis and other problems.

!!Dosage
Take one to three capsules daily with meals. Please take a full glass of water when taking these capsules for maximum benefit.

Note: For maximum effect, this supplement should be taken for some time before the full effect of improvement is experienced.

Caution: if you are pregnant, lactating or have an existing ulcer, please consult your healthcare professional before taking this product.

Enzymes are specialized protein molecules facilitating most of the body's metabolic processes - such as, supplying energy, digesting foods, purifying your blood, ridding the body of waste products etc.

They are divided into two main groups - that being metabolic enzymes and digestive enzymes.

!!Enzymes are required for
Enzymes are vital to our health and change the rate at which chemical reactions happen, but without any external energy source added or by being changed themselves. These very important ingredients to our health, is reaction specific, and will only act on certain substances - referred to as substrates.

These reactions could be for the substrate to bond to the enzyme, or different substrates bonding together, or for the substrate to be broken up into different products.

Without enzymes in your body, you could have the best nutritional plan around, and supplement your diet with a host of vitamin supplements, but without these humble workers we call enzymes, the vitamins will not be absorbed into your system.

Although enzymes are found in small quantities, they are extremely powerful -30 grams of pure crystalline pepsin would digest nearly 2 metric tons of egg white in a matter of hours.

They assist in fighting aging, weight loss, lowering cholesterol, cleaning the colon, breaking down fats, strengthening the immune system, improve mental capacity, detoxifying the body, building muscles from protein, eliminating carbon dioxide from the lungs etc.

It is interesting to note that people have reported the disappearing of allergy symptoms after taking amylase.

They are classified into several categories, where hydrolytic enzymes break down substances into simpler compounds, oxidizing enzymes (or oxidases) assist with oxidizing reactions and reducing enzymes, which speeds up reduction where oxygen is removed.

Food enzymes are divided into seven categories, them being: 
#[[Lipase]] - breaking down fat
#[[Protease]] - ([[Bromelain]])breaking down proteins 
#[[Cellulase]] - breaking down fiber
#[[Amylase]] - breaking down starch
#[[Lactase]] - breaking down dairy
#[[Sucrase]] - breaking down sugars and
#[[Maltase]] - breaking down grain

Individual enzymes are compiled by adding the term "ase" to the substrate to which it reacts with - lipase for lipids (fats). There are however enzymes like trypsin and pepsin which "ase" is not added to, since they were named before this standardized.

When we cook food at high temperatures, we kill the enzymes contained in the food, and this will lead to undigested, or poorly digested food in the digestive tract. This in turn will lead to putrefying food in your system, which may cause a host of health problems.

When we ingest diet-sourced enzymes, they start to pre-digest food, which means that less internally produced enzymes are required to digest the food properly.

Most cell respiratory processes require enzymes - such as glycolysis, Krebs cycle etc.

!!Deficiency of enzymes
A shortage of enzymes in the body will influence the health of the entire body, and symptoms may include stomach gas, indigestion, bloating, heartburn and flatulence.

!!Dosage
Depending on the type of dietary supplement, which you decide to buy, it is best to take them at meal times.

When selecting a supplement ensure that it contains: protease, amylase, lipase, lactase and cellulase

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
People starting an intake of these compounds in supplement form have reported in some cases an increase of gas, bloating, acne, slight dull headache etc - the symptoms are however temporary and is the body's way of healing itself. More water must be taken when taking enzymes in supplement form, to assist with the cleansing of the body.

The benefits are felt and seen quickly, but maximum effect is only achieved after taking a supplement for some time, and the best results are reported after taking it for at least 12 weeks.

!!When more may be required
When recovering from an illness, or suffering from a chronic disease you could benefit from ingesting dietary enzymes. People suffering from hypoglycemia, endocrine gland deficiency, obesity, anorexia nervosa as well as stress related problems have reported benefits from a supplement.

It is also said to assist with acne, psoriasis, chronic inflammation, high blood pressure, diabetes, fatigue, Epstein-Barr Syndrome (also called glandular fever) allergies, arthritis, fevers, infections, depression, anxiety etc.

Although they do sound like a cure-all, it really is not the case - they are simply required in so many body functions, that an increase of enzymes to the optimum level, would in most cases impact positively on a host of health problems.

People eating mostly cooked food, athletes, body builders, and all people involved in feeling more energetic and healthy could benefit from these often neglected nutritional compounds.

!!Enemy of enzymes
They are sensitive to heat as well as the surrounding pH. For this reason, food cooked at high heat. Food processing also kills of these entities.

The presence of heavy metals, such as mercury, dehydration as well as ultra-violet radiation impair their functions.

!!Other interesting points
Enzymes do not attach to living cells, but will digest the proteins in dead cells. The reason for this is the fact that enzymes cannot pass through the cell membrane of a living cell, but when the cell dies, the membrane loses this ability and the enzyme can act upon it.

People taking dietary enzyme supplements should expect more bowel movements.

!!Food sources of enzymes
The best source of enzymes from your diet comes from raw food, eaten in its original state with no processing.
Fat soluble vitamins are essential to your health, and each one has its one function in the body.

Vitamins A, D, E & K are all soluble in fat and fat solvents and are therefore classed as “fat-soluble” vitamins.

These vitamins are absorbed by the body from the intestinal tract and follow the same path of absorption as fat and any condition interfering with the absorption of fats would result in poor absorption of these vitamins as well. This class of nutrient can be stored in the body to some extend, mostly in the liver, and because of this, short term deficiencies are less likely to manifest themselves slower than those of the water-soluble class.

!!Benefits
The benefits of the vitamins are listed on each individual page.

!!Toxicity
Certain fat-soluble supplements can cause toxicity if large amounts are taken. The toxicity of each vitamin, or problem with high or excessive intake, is listed on each page.

!!Deficiency
The symptoms of a deficiency of each vitamin is listed on the info page, together with all other pertinent information.

!!Links
To view detailed information on any specific element listed underneath, please click the appropriate blue hyperlink:

[[Vitamin A]]
[[Vitamin D]]
[[Vitamin E]]
[[Vitamin K]]

Fats and lipids are necessary for a couple of reasons - they are high concentrations of energy, contain fatty acids and acts as carrier of fat soluble vitamins.

On the whole, the modern diet may contain too much fat, since fat is contained in so many hidden items in our diet.

In nutrition, all fats, oils and fat-like substances are classified as lipids and are all insoluble in water and are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

If a lipid is fluid at room temperature we normally refer to it as oil, while if it is solid we normally refer to it as fat - but both are mixtures of triglycerides.

Triglycerides are esters of glycerol containing three fatty acids - normally two or three different ones. When hydrolysis is achieved by heat or the enzymes lipase, glycerol, fatty acids, diglycerides and monoglycerides are yielded.

''Glycerol'' is an alcohol which contains three carbon atoms and three hydroxyl groups, which can combine with fatty acids to form mono, di or triglycerides.

''Fatty acids'' can be classified as saturated or unsaturated - depending on the presence or absence of double bonds. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to lower cholesterol blood levels in certain circumstances while saturated fatty acids tend to raise them.

Oils from vegetable sources are mostly polyunsaturated except for coconut oil, which is nearly 90% saturated. Saturated oils, mostly from animal sources are also mostly solid at room temperature and require greater temperatures to reach melting point.

''Di-glycerides and mono-glycerides'' are esters of glycerol containing either two (di) or one (mono) fatty acids and are formed during the digestion of triglycerides.

Phospholipids are compounds found in cell membranes and are essential for certain enzyme actions, the transport of lipids in plasma and an energy source. One of the most abundant types are lecithin which also contains choline - useful in preventing the accumulation of fat in the liver.

Indigestible carbohydrates are normally referred to as fiber, which is an important part of our diet in order to achieve optimum health and is found in nuts, fruits, vegetables, beans, lentils, whole grains.

An adequate intake of dietary fiber will help prevent a high risk for bowel cancer, diabetes, diverticula disease or constipation.

When you have enough fiber in your diet, the fecal matter is less dense, bulkier and passes along the digestive far better and faster - which helps prevent putrefaction of food in the colon, carcinogens forming in the body and running less risk of infection.

An ideal amount of fiber per day is around 35 grams, and this level is easily maintained if the diet is balanced and healthy, or can be easily corrected by simply adding dietary fiber.

Fluorine is a constituent of bones and teeth, but since it is very seldom added to supplements, we have not included a large volume of data on this element.

!!Fluorine is required for
It is beneficial in most cases in preventing dental caries, but the addition of fluoride to drinking water has become a controversial subject in some societies.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

The dosage determined to prevent dental caries, without marking the teeth is set at 1 mg Fl/L.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Excess fluorine stains the teeth with mottled spots -known as dental fluorosis.

!!Other interesting points
There is some evidence that it is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, as an increase in the retention of calcium was noted, together with a reduction of bone demineralization, by some people treated with fluorine salts.

!!Food sources of fluorine
It is found in water as well as the food grown in areas where fluorine is present in the soil and water.

Free radicals are formed during the process of the oxidation in the body. To understand this better think of un-treated iron and air - when the iron is left exposed to the elements rust will form - oxidation will occur.

In our bodies oxygen is transported through the bloodstream to where it is required for normal cell function. One problem however exists with the oxygen where it could be lacking in the number of electrons it holds. In order to keep the electron states stable the molecules to obtain electrons from other molecules, which sets off a chain reaction.

The problem with the oxygen could be with the quality of oxygen as such, including pollution, cigarette smoke, as well as other environmental factors outside the body and certain problems within the body as well.

Other factors can lead to the production of free radicals as well, such as the exposure to radiation from the sun or from medical X-rays as well as environmental pollution and the diet we all ingest. When the body oxidizes the food to obtain the nutrients and energy, oxygen is used and unpaired electrons are released.

Free radicals are these altered, unpaired oxygen molecules which can cause a great deal of trouble in the body. They are a great contributing factor to the clogging of arteries.

Not all free radicals produced by the body are harmful and indeed, free radicals produced by the immune system help to destroy viruses and bacteria. Others are involved in producing vital hormones and activating enzymes that are needed for life itself.

The problem arises where there are excessive free radicals in the body which damage the cells and tissues, and the over-abundance of the free radicals create even more free radicals in the body.

In very high volumes free radicals can alter the genetic code material of cells themselves. Mutations that are formed by free radicals can lead to leukemia and other types of cancer as well as a host of other diseases.

Not only can free radicals cause disease but can also damage the protective cell membrane, this leads to retention of fluids in the cells, which is involved in the aging process.

To fight these free radicals, antioxidants can be taken into the diet, which neutralize and destroy the free radicals, helping to detoxify and protect the body.

Vitamin A, Beta-carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, bioflavonoids, green tea, selenium, co-enzyme Q 10 and grape seed extract are all considered effective antioxidants, and it might be advisable to add an antioxidant to your daily supplement intake.
Fructose, also called levulose or fruit sugar, is found associated with glucose in many fruits, as well as in honey.

This highly soluble sugar is also the sweetest of the simple sugars and is fermented in yeast.

When combined with glucose it forms sucrose and is the structural unit found in inulin - a polysaccharide found in Jerusalem artichoke, onions as well as garlic.
GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid, is the product of a biochemical decarboxylation reaction of glutamic acid by the vitamin pyridoxal, as well as from decarboxylase (GAD).

!!GABA is required for
GABA is required as an inhibitory neurotransmitter to block the transmission of an impulse from one cell to another in the central nervous system, which prevents over-firing of the nerve cells.

It is also used for brain metabolism and to treat both epilepsy and hypertension where it is thought to induce tranquility in individuals who have a high activity of manic behavior and acute agitation.

In combination with inositol and nicotinamide it helps with blocking anxiety and stress related impulses from reaching the motor centers of the brain.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid can be used to calm a person, much like tranquilizers, but without the possibility of addiction.

!!Deficiency of GABA
It has been suggested that a shortage of GABA may cause panic attacks, since an intake of tranquilizers can increase the level of GABA in the body. GABA may also be effective in treating PMS in women.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage has not been established, but it is interesting to note that some research suggests that the supplement Kava (kava is a herbal root used as a supplement) causes more GABA receptors to form in the brain.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxic levels have not been established, but very high intake of GABA may cause anxiety, tingling of extremities, shortness of breath as well as a numb feeling around the mouth.

!!Other interesting points
It is sometimes used as sexual a stimulant because of its relaxing capabilities, as well as with prostate problems, since it also assists with the release of sex hormones.

Galactose, is not normally found in nature, but is mostly hydrolyzed from the disaccharide lactose, which is found in milk.

Although not very water-soluble, and less sweet than glucose, forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins, which is found in many tissues.

The body can change glucose to galactose in order to enable the mammary glands to produce lactose.
Both Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine have been using ginger for centuries, and forms part of their way of treating illnesses. Its botanical name is Zingiber officinale and in Chinese medicine is referred to as Sheng Jiang.

The ginger plant grows in various parts of the world such as India, Asia, Africa and the West Indies.

The rhizomes and roots of the plant and used and it is used in herbal remedies for cleansing of the colon, cramps, stimulating circulation, bowel disorders, fever, hot flashes, muscle aches, reducing allergies, indigestion, morning sickness, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting, and because of its anti-microbial properties is also used for sores and wounds.

In Chinese medicine it is classified as a warming herb, which affects the channels of the Spleen, Stomach and Lungs and is indicated for nausea, headaches, vomiting, poor digestion as well as colds, nasal discharge and coughing.

In Ayurvedic medicine ginger is used to balance the doshas (which is the three organizing principles providing for homeostasis in Ayurvedic medicine), sort out symptoms of colds and other viral infections, enhancing digestion, stimulating appetite and lessening arthritis.

In the West Indies ginger is used for the treatment of urinary tract infections while Nigerian herbal practitioners use ginger for the treatment of malaria and yellow fever.

In more western remedies it is used for nausea, headaches, colds, flu, fever, motion sickness and as an anti-inflammatory.

In a study done on women suffering from rheumatoid arthritis is was found that ginger helped to lessen the pain and inflammation.

These anti-inflammatory properties also suggest that ginger can be helpful with easing bronchial constriction during allergies and colds.

Some studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger are achieved by inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism in both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways.

Ginger contains a host of compounds like acrid resins, bisabolene, borneal, camphene, choline, cineole, citral, folic acid, gingerol, inositol, manganese, pantothenic acid, PABA, phellandrene, sequiterpene, shogoals, silicon, zingerone, zingiberene and vitamin B3.

!!Contra-indications
Ginger can cause stomach distress if taken in large quantities, and also acts as a menstrual stimulant and potential abortifacient, although small quantities are considered safe for pregnant women. Ginger should not be taken orally if you suffer from stomach or duodenal ulcers.

Ginkgo biloba is a powerful antioxidant and is well known for its powerful action to enhance circulation, even to the smallest of body parts, and apart from helping with the blood flow, it is thought to also make the blood less sticky. It is also sometimes referred to as GBE (Ginkgo Biloba Extract)

Although it is considered a new participant in nutrition in America, it has been used for centuries by the Chinese, and has become a conventional supplement in Europe.

Because of its powerful effect on brain, mood and mental functions, it is also referred to as the "smart herb" and is great for reducing high blood pressure, inhibiting blood clots and as an anti-aging supplement.

Ginkgo biloba improves brain functioning by increasing the cerebral and peripheral blood flow, the circulation and oxygenation.

It is used to treat depression headaches, memory loss, boosting short-term memory, vertigo, tinnitis, leg cramps, asthma, eczema, heart and kidney disorders, impotence, penile dysfunction and male infertility.

The leaves of this herb have been used for thousands of years and contain ginkgolides and heterosides, but need to be taken for some time for the full effect to be felt.

Some individuals may experience gastrointestinal upsets with large dosages of ginkgo biloba.
Many types of ginseng are used in supplements and vary from Siberian, Korean to American, with each one claiming to be the best. The active ingredient which contains the "magical" properties is ginsenosides or eleuthrosides in the case of the Siberian type and the root is the part of the plant used to obtain the active ingredient.

!!Ginseng is required for
It has been used for the past 7,000 years in traditional Asian medicine, and is prescribed for a variety of problems ranging from stress, failing memory, obesity, flagging vitality, exhaustion, improving the immune system, fatigue, improving fertility and virility as well as a general strengthening tonic for the body.

Some also believe that it can be used in preventing certain cancers, and because of improved blood circulation, it is also used by people in assisting with Alzheimer's disease.

Korean ginseng is also known as panax ginseng, Ren Shen or Chinese ginseng while female ginseng is also known as dong quai or angelica sinensis, American ginseng as panax quiquefolium and Siberian ginseng as Eleutherococcus senticosus. Some people have the notion that some ginsengs are more active than others, but in essence they are all nearly the same.

Russian scientists believe that ginseng, which is an adaptogen (more on adaptogens), stimulate physical and mental activity while also improving the endocrine gland function and having a positive effect on sex glands. It is useful in sparing the use of glycogen (glycogen is a sugar stored in the liver and muscles) as it increases the use of fatty acids (fatty acids discussed further).

Furthermore it is used to enhance athletic performance, assisting in rejuvenating the body, increasing longevity, detoxifying the body, improving skin and muscle tone and perking up your metabolism.

The root is normally 3 - 4 years old when used, but the best roots are those grown for 60 - 80 years, but are so expensive that they are not used in commercial applications.

Although western society really got to know ginseng as a sexual stimulant in the beginning, it is a valuable ingredient for enhancing general well-being and health.

!!Dosage
Not being an essential nutrient, no RDA exists on this ingredient, but quantities of around 200 mg in extract form is mostly used in a multi-supplement, while pure ginseng supplements normally contain up to 1,000 mg per capsule / dose.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
A very high intake of ginseng may cause temporary breast tenderness and people with high blood pressure and hypoglycemia should be careful of using high dosages of this ingredient.

Glucose which is also referred to as dextrose, is a moderately sweet sugar found in vegetables and fruit.

When it is linked with another monosaccharide molecule, it is a component of all disaccharides and a basic unit of the polysaccharides starch and cellulose.

When glucose is fermented by the enzyme zymase, in yeast, it results in the formation of carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.

It is the basic structure to which all carbohydrates are reduced to in the end, for transport via the bloodstream and use by the cells of the body.

Glutamic acid, a non-essential amino acid and is synthesized from a number of amino acids including ornithine and arginine.

!!Glutamic acid is required for
It is an important excitatory neurotransmitter, and glutamic acid is also important in the metabolism of sugars and fats.

It helps with the transportation of potassium across the blood-brain barrier, although itself does not pass this barrier that easily. It also shows promise in the future treatment of neurological conditions, ulcers, hypoglycemic come, muscular dystrophy, epilepsy, Parkinson's, and mental retardation.

Glutamic acid can be used as fuel in the brain, and can attach itself to nitrogen atoms in the process of forming glutamine, and this action also detoxifies the body of ammonia. This action is the only way in which the brain can be detoxified from ammonia.

The fluid produced by the prostate gland also contains amounts of glutamic acid, and may play a role in the normal function of the prostate.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
High dosages of glutamic acid may include symptoms such as headaches and neurological problems.

Although no major side effects are reported on supplementation of this nutrient, people with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without first consulting a medical professional.

People suffering from personality disorders as well as child behavior disorders may find benefit from this nutrient.

!!Food sources of glutamic acid
Excellent sources of glutamic acid include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products, as well as some protein-rich plant foods.
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid and is found in large amounts in the muscles of the body, and since it easily pass through the blood-brain barrier, it is also known as a superb brain fuel, and some people refer to it as a “smart-vitamin” – although it is in actual fact no vitamin at all.

!!Glutamine is required for
It is converted to glutamic acid in the brain, which is essential for cerebral functions, and increases the amount of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which is required for brain functioning and mental activity.

It is used in the muscles for the synthesis of muscle proteins, and is of use for the treatment of wasting muscles after illness or post-operative care.

Although the body requires nitrogen, free nitrogen in the body can be harmful since it forms ammonia – especially toxic to the brain. The liver normally converts ammonia to urea, excreted in the urine – but glutamic acid attaches itself to nitrogen and forms glutamic acid, while removing ammonia from the brain.

It further is used in the body to balance the acid/alkaline level and is also the basis or building blocks of RNA and DNA.

It serves as a source of fuel for cells lining the intestines and it is also used by white blood cells and is important for immune function.

!!Deficiency of glutamine
Deficiency of this nutrient is rare, since it can be manufactured by the body but deficiencies can develop during periods of fasting, starvation, strict dieting, cirrhosis, and weight loss associated with AIDS and cancer.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the presence of good health, supplementation of glutamine should not be necessary.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No clear toxicity has emerged in glutamine studies, but it should not be taken by people suffering from liver or kidney problems.

!!When more may be required
People suffering from arthritis, fibrosis, connective tissue disease, peptic ulcers, ulcerative colitis, as well as epilepsy, fatigue, impotence and senility may find benefit from an increase of this nutrient, as well as people busy with alcohol abuse withdrawal and patients living with HIV.

!!Other interesting points
Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a salt of glutamic acid, is sometimes used as a condiment for flavoring foods. It imparts no flavor of its own, but enhances the flavors of meats, fish, and vegetables. Some people have an allergic reaction to MSGs, and should be avoided by such individuals.

L-glutamine supplements are also referred to as “smart drugs” since it is thought to improve the functioning of the brain.

In animal research, glutamine has anti-inflammatory effects. Glutamine also decreases the craving for sweets and sugar, which is beneficial to people wishing to lose weight.

!!Food sources
Glutamine is found in many high protein foods, such as fish, meat, beans, and dairy as well as in vegetables such as raw parsley and spinach.
Glutathione is actually a tri-peptide made up the amino acids gamma-glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine and is also known as gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine or GSH. It is as such not an amino acid, but because of its close relationship to amino acids, is dealt with here. It is found in the largest concentrations in the liver.

!!Glutathione is required for
It is a powerful antioxidant and detoxifies the harmful compounds in the liver, where it is then excreted through the bile.

The liver also excretes glutathione directly into the bloodstream where it is used to help maintain the integrity of red blood cells, as well as protecting white blood cells.

Glutathione is also found in the lungs and intestinal tract where it assists in carbohydrate metabolism as well as breaking down oxidized fats.

It is also used to prevent oxidative stress in most cells and helps to trap free radicals that can damage DNA and RNA. GSH also plays major roles in drug metabolism, calcium metabolism, the gamma-glutamyl cycle, blood platelet and membrane functions.

!!Deficiency of glutathione
A deficiency of gluthione is first noticed in the nervous system with a lack of co-ordination, tremors, mental disorders, and body balance, all caused by lesions in the brain.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!When more may be required
There is a direct correlation with the speed of aging and the reduction of glutathione concentrations in intracellular fluids. As individuals grow older, glutathione levels drop, and the ability to detoxify free radicals decreases.

!!Other interesting points
Supplements of glutathione are expensive, so it might be better to try and ingest more of this nutrient via your diet.

!!Food sources of glutathione
Foods rich in cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine should be selected when wishing to increase your dietary intake of this nutrient.
Glycine is a sweet tasting, non-essential amino acid that was first isolated in 1820 from gelatin and is also found in good quantity in silk fibroin. This nonessential nutrient can be manufactured from serine and threonine, so dietary intake is not essential.

!!Glycine is required for
It is required to build protein in the body and synthesis of nucleic acids, the construction of RNA as well as DNA, bile acids and other amino acids in the body. It is further found to be useful in aiding the absorption of calcium in the body.

It helps in retarding degeneration of muscles since it helps to supply extra creatine in the body.

It is also found in fairly large amounts in the prostate fluid and may for this reason be important in prostate health.

The glycine amino acid is also used by the nervous system and its function as an inhibitory neurotransmitter makes it important to help prevent epileptic seizures and it is also used in the treatment of manic depression and hyperactivity.

!!Deficiency of glycine
Few people are glycine deficient, in part because the body makes its own supply of the non-essential amino acids, and because it is abundant in food sources.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No clear toxicity has emerged from glycine studies, however individuals with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without consulting a health care professional.

!!When more may be required
In a study where men were given extra glycine over a period of time, it reduced the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia.

!!Other interesting points
If the amino acid serine is required in the body, it can be converted from glycine.

!!Food sources of glycine
High protein food contains good amounts of glycine and is present in fish, meat, beans, and dairy products.
Glycogen is a quick storage vehicle for the body to keep large amounts of glucose when it is not needed by the body. It is also referred to as "animal starch" and is classed as a polysaccharide.

Although much like amylopectin, glycogen contains more branched chains and has a higher molecular weight.

It is stored in both the liver and muscles, but the liver store is more readily available for energy and blood sugar level maintenance, while the muscle store is mostly used for muscle fuel.
The Cherokee people as well as other Native Americans have been using goldenseal for a host of medicinal uses, but this perennial herb is lately mostly used to soothe inflamed and infected mucus membranes. The roots of the plant are used, and got its name from the cup-like scars on the roots, which form on the previous year's growth and resemble wax seals that were used to seal envelopes.

!!Goldenseal is used for
The primary effect that goldenseal has on our bodies is to assist with our immune system. Not only does it help to boost our immune system, but also assists in fighting bacteria and viruses.

Goldenseal is also used as a detoxifier and blood purifier, and is said to be beneficial for the liver.

Many people report that it helps with urinary tract infections, sinus problems, as well as promoting the healing of mouth ulcers and cold sores.

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) contains berberine and hydrastine alkaloids, which are the active compounds in this herb. It is the berberine that imparts the rich and bright golden yellow color to the herb.

The other compounds found in goldenseal are albumin, b-complex vitamins, biotin, calcium, candine, chlorine, choline, chologenic acid, inositol, iron, lignin, manganese, PABA, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, C & E.

The alkaloids are bitter, and for this reason most herbal infusions (herbal teas) that contain goldenseal, also include other sweet herbs, to lessen the taste. In Chinese medicine it is referred to as a "bitter tonic herb".

These bitter herbs are also indicated to assist with stimulating digestion (since it helps in the stimulation of the gall bladder to secrete bile), counteracting sweet cravings and having antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Goldenseal is taken orally in tablet or tincture form, and is also applied locally to sores and ulcers.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
High intake of goldenseal can lead to diarrhea, respiratory problems and irritation of the mucus membranes.

Pregnant women, people on anticoagulant medication or people with a heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes or glaucoma should not use it. People suffering from lupus or multiple sclerosis should also avoid goldenseal.
Gotu kola (also known as Centella, Centella Asiatica, Indian Pennywort and Mandookaparni) has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb and was referred to in the French pharmacopoeia in 1884, as well as the ancient traditional Chinese Shennong Herbal some 2,000 years ago, as well as in Indian Ayurvedic medicine some 3,000 years ago.

!!Gotu Kola can be with
It has been used for: wound healing, better circulation, memory enhancement, cancer, vitality, general tonic, respiratory ailments, detoxifying the body, treatment of skin disorders (such as psoriasis and eczema), revitalizing connective tissue, burn and scar treatment, clearing up skin infections, slimming and edema, arthritis, rheumatism, treatment of liver and kidneys, periodontal disease, strengthening of veins (varicose veins), blood purifier, high blood pressure, sedative, anti-stress, anti-anxiety, an aphrodisiac, immune booster, anabolic and adaptogen etc.

None of these above claims have been evaluated by the FDA, but research has been done by various institutes and universities, which concluded that more research is called for on this ancient herb.

Although somebody once said "if it sounds too good to be true, it usually is" - I am not sure that this applies to this herb, as the qualities exhibited by it, have been used for centuries and are still in use today - for that reason, I do believe that there must be truth in the anecdotal claims made on behalf of this herb. (This herb is in the same class as apple cider vinegar.)

It contains a variety of ingredients, but the active ingredients are asiaticoside (a triterpene glycoside) (triterpenoid), brahmoside & brahminoside (both saponin glycosides), madecassoside (a glycoside with strong anti-inflammatory properties), madecassic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin K, asparate, glutamate, serine, threonine, alanine, lysine, histidine, magnesium, calcium and sodium.

It contains no caffeine (it is sometimes confused with kola nut, which contains high caffeine content) yet; it is used extensively to increase energy and vitality. The reason for this might be because it is said to assist with increasing the blood sugar level, which in turn would prevent hypoglycemia, mental fatigue, depression, confusion as well as schizophrenic tendencies - or it could be because of the high concentration of thiamine (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) which assist to convert carbohydrates into glucose as well as normal nervous system functioning.

In animal testing it was also shown that centella (together with capsicum and Siberian ginseng) can assist in overcoming the negative effects of fatigue and stress.

In traditional African health it has been used for the treatment of leprosy (the asiaticoside content dissolves the waxy coating of the leprosy bacteria - allowing the immune system to destroy the bacteria), bronchitis, asthma, syphilis and wound healing; in India it has for the last 3,000 years of Ayurvedic medicine been used for wound healing, a mild diuretic, increasing concentration, alertness, as well as anti-anxiety and anti-stress; in the Far East it is used for treatment of depression, longevity, (in China it is called the "Fountain of Youth")

In our modern day pharmaceutical world (a fact acknowledged by a major multi-national pharmaceutical manufacturer, since they make a centella extract as well) it is often used as an active ingredient in tonics, oral slimming formulas, body-beautiful preparations, body firming products, wound healing, anti-aging skin care products (independent studies have shown the topical effectiveness between centella and treating stretch marks).

Great stock is also put by using this herb for bedridden and post-operative patients for a few reasons - wound healing, preventing bedsores, epithelial ulcers, as well as helping prevent muscular atrophy.

Its beneficial effects on the venous system is of great help to people suffering from diverse problems such as varicose veins, gastric ulcers, phlebitis, hemorrhoids, etc. In this action the centella helps in strengthening the capillaries and veins and in so doing assists with better blood circulation.

With its effect on connective tissue great value is achieved with the synthesis of collagen, thickening of the skin (a great anti-aging property - as we age our skins become thinner), increasing the tensile strength of the flesh, wound healing, repair of damaged tissue as well as promoting hair and nail growth.

In a French study done in 1966 it was found that it had a significant healing effect when used after episiotomy - a surgical cut of the vulva to prevent tearing during childbirth. The cut healed more rapidly than with standard treatment.

Other anti-aging properties that this herb is said to promote is an increase in hemoglobin, and a decrease of urea and acid phosphate levels in the blood.

Although Yogis have use this herb to increase their meditation abilities through better concentration, focus and alertness, this herb has also shown great promise in improving mental retardation and increasing IQ.

It has been used for centuries in the treatment of liver and kidney problems, and has once again become popular as an alternative treatment for people suffering from hepatitis as well as alcoholic liver disease.

When detoxifying the body it is also helpful to look for help from centella, as it assists with destroying toxic accumulation in the brain as well as the nerves, while it helps to clear the body from heavy metals as well as drugs -including recreational drugs.

In alternative health this herb is used to treat tumors and cancerous growths, without suppressing the auto immune system or creating toxic wastes within the body.

!!Gotu kola dosage
No RDA or dosage has been determined but fresh leaves can be used in salads, or dried leaves can be used to make tea. Supplements are also available in varying strengths.

Nausea has been reported at very high levels of intake.

It should not be taken internally as a supplement by children under 4 or breast-feeding / pregnant mothers. People taking sedatives should also not use centella as a supplement.
Grape seed extract helps to protect cells from the damage caused by oxidation and [[Free radicals]] and also promotes healthy circulation.

Procyanidolic oligomers - grapeseed extract

It is beneficial in treating degenerative and deteriorating diseases because of the potent antioxidant qualities it has. 
Some expensive supplements, derived from pine bark, contain 85% proanthocyanidin while grapeseed extract contains 95% proanthocyanidin.

It helps increase the effectiveness of vitamin C by acting as a carrier and as a restorer of oxidized vitamin C by working with glutathione.

These nutrients belong to the flavonoid family. The action of this nutrient is to act as an antioxidant and stabilize collagen and elastin - both important proteins in connective tissues, as well as blood vessels and muscles.

Although they are not essential nutrients to the body they do have a part to play in achieving optimum health.

These nutrients are water-soluble and free of side effects since excess is simply excreted in the urine. Another positive effect of these flavonoids in the body is the sparing of consumption of vitamin C.

PCOs help with increasing intra cellular vitamin C levels, decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, scavenges oxidants and free radicals and uniquely binds to collagen in order to protect it from destruction.

These nutrients are also helpful as anti-inflammatory, antihistamines, and anti-allergens and are very effective free radical scavengers. They possess up to 50 times stronger antioxidant activity than those of vitamin C and E, Beta Carotene or Selenium.

They are great to promote tissue elasticity, healing injuries, reducing swelling, edema, as well as improving circulation.

With all of these properties it is clear to see that it is great for anti-aging and anti-disease treatment. Daily intake of these nutrients, as well as other antioxidants, will help with preventing premature aging, diseases and decay.

It has also been reported that it is helpful in fighting varicose veins as well as high blood pressure and diabetes. In certain individuals vision improved as well as general well-being.
Green tea, these humble leaves, have once again become the darling of nutritionally aware people, since they have great antioxidant properties, combat mental fatigue and are also used with great effect by people who suffer from various forms of cancer.

!!Green tea is required for
Green tea is used for its antioxidant properties, to help fight mental and physical fatigue, its general health enhancing properties, in the fight against cancer, help to prevent blood clotting tendencies, lower blood cholesterol levels and the regulation of blood sugar levels. It is also used in weight loss programs, since it is helpful to those individuals busy with weight loss.

It contains various compounds such as catechin, epigaltocatechin, flavonoids, bioflavonoids, fluoride, gallic acid, polyphenols, tannin, theophylline, vitamin C as well as a small amount of caffeine.

!!Deficiency of green tea
No specific deficiencies will result from not ingesting green tea, since it is not an essential nutritional ingredient.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
People suffering from anxiety disorder, irregular heartbeat, or when pregnant or breastfeeding are advised to limit their intake of this ingredient.

!!When more may be required
When tired or generally fatigued, green tea could help you regain your zest for life again.
This is simply the BEST supplement to take for your skin, hair and nails. Apart from being a great multivitamin supplement, it also contains Aloe Vera and Grape Seed Extract to help improve the condition of your skin, hair and nails by boosting your nutrition systemically from the inside. Nutrition impacts on your appearance, since diet affects your skin, nails and hair, as well as your energy levels. Naturopathic philosophy maintains that your skin reflects the condition of your liver – too many toxins lead to a dull, spotty sallow skin, as well as low energy levels.

Hair, Skin & Nail supplements, from our Zest for Life™ range was specially formulated to assist with the nutritional needs of your hair, skin and nails.

If you are looking at increasing the quality of your hair, skin and nails, and an excellent multivitamin supplement, get this supplement today.

Why you benefit from this formula and what it contains:

Hair, Skin & Nail Supplement - your great daily multivitamin supplement - has combined the ingredients underneath, in specially formulated quantities, to bring you the best formulated capsule to assist in fulfilling the nutritional needs of your skin, hair, nail - and overall nutritional supplementation. Please click the blue hyperlinks for more ingredient information.

''Vitamins''
*Vitamins A, vitamin D and vitamin E (fat soluble vitamins)
*Vitamin B complex (B1,B2, B6, B12 and pantothenic acid), Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and Beta-carotene (vitamin A precursor)
*The 3 fat soluble vitamins and beta-carotene and the water soluble vitamin B complex vitamins (including PABA, biotin and pantothenic acid) and vitamin C have important roles in the synthesis of new tissue and maintenance and repair of damaged cells.

''Kelp''
*Kelp is a valuable source of iodine and other trace minerals.

''Gelatin''
*This is a protein source for building tissue.

''Trace elements (minerals)''
*iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium and zinc.
*Minerals are often deficient in the diet, especially if refined foods are eaten, and are necessary for cell growth and building healthy tissues, including nails, hair and skin and repairing damage.

Hair, skin and nails are very sensitive to deficiencies in the diet and the vitamins and minerals, including iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium and zinc in our formulation provide a basis for improving nutritional status to keep these tissues strong and resistant to infection.

''Antioxidants''
*Various antioxidant compounds have also been included in this formulation to aid detoxification and so promote healthy glowing skin.
*These antioxidants, vitamin A, bioflavonoids, rutin, beta-carotene and selenium are essential in repair of damage caused by pollutants in the environment, smoking and poor dietary habits. These ingredients, vitamin A, bioflavonoids, rutin, beta-carotene and selenium all have great properties to promote general well-being as well.

''Betaine''
*Betaine helps in the breakdown of fats by the liver, in other words, betaine is a lipotropic substance. It is also a component of lipoproteins and plays a role in the structural integrity of cell membranes.

''Inositol and choline''
*Inositol and choline are vitamin like substances and are components of cell membranes and are also lipotropic (that is they aid the removal of fat from the liver).

''Methionine and cysteine''
*Methionine and cysteine are sulfur containing amino acids and contribute to the structure of proteins.
*Cysteine also plays a role in energy metabolism, and in the liver is used to form the amino acid glutathione which helps detoxify potentially harmful substances.
*Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid. It cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained from the diet. It plays an important role as a precursor for the synthesis of other sulfur containing amino acids (cysteine and taurine).
*Methionine donates sulfur and other compounds required for the synthesis of many other substances such as choline, creatine, adrenaline and carnitine, which are all important for the efficient production of energy in the body.

''Aloe Vera''
*This herb is particularly beneficial to the skin. It has been used in Europe for many years as an effective remedy for skin ailments, and people can attest to its cell regenerative properties.

''Grape Seed Extract''
*Grape seed extract has powerful antioxidant properties, with specific anti-aging benefits for the skin, which result in improved elasticity.
*Grape Seed Extract has been combined with the other ingredients in Hair, Skin & Nail Formula, to bring you the best multivitamin product, which will specifically also help these three areas.
Histidine is an essential amino acid, manufactured in sufficient quantities in adults, but children may at some time have a shortage of this important vitamin. It is one of the basic (reference to pH factor) amino acids due to its aromatic nitrogen-heterocyclic imidazole side chain. This amino acid is metabolized into the neurotransmitter histamine and the set of genes that produce the enzymes responsible for histidine synthesis.

!!Histidine is required for
Histidine is also a precursor of histamine, a compound released by immune system cells during an allergic reaction.

It is needed for growth and for the repair of tissue, as well as the maintenance of the myelin sheaths that act as protector for nerve cells.

It is further required for the manufacture of both red and white blood cells, and helps to protect the body from damage caused by radiation and in removing heavy metals from the body.

In the stomach, histidine is also helpful in producing gastric juices, and people with a shortage of gastric juices or suffering from indigestion, may also benefit from this nutrient.

!!Deficiency of histidine
None known, but it is reported that an increase in the intake of this nutrient helps with the lengthening of orgasms and also more intense sexual enjoyment.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Some people take 1,000 mg of histidine two to three times per day in capsule or tablet form but it is best to work out the dosage requirements as 8-10 mg per day per kilogram of body weight.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
There are no reported side effects with histidine, but too high levels of histidine may lead to stress and mental disorders such as anxiety and people with schizophrenia have been found to have high levels of histidine.

People suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar (manic) depression should not take a histidine supplement without the approval of their medical professional.

!!Best used with
Best taken with vitamin B3 (niacin) and B6 (pyridoxine).

!!When more may be required
Although not conclusively proven – it is thought that histidine may be beneficial to people suffering from arthritis and nerve deafness.

!!Other interesting points
Histidine is also used for sexual arousal, functioning and enjoyment

Histidinemia is an inborn error of the metabolism of histidine due to a deficiency of the enzyme histidase, where high levels of histidine are found in the blood and urine, and may manifest in speech disorders and mental retardation.

!!Food sources of histidine
Dairy, meat, poultry and fish are good sources of histidine as well as rice, wheat and rye.
Hydroxyproline can be synthesized in the body, making it a non-essential amino acid and is used nearly exclusively in structural proteins including collagen and connective tissue. As information is not plentiful on this nutrient, our page is also very short.

This amino acid is not incorporated into collagen during biosynthesis at the ribosome, but is formed from proline by a post-translational modification by an enzymatic hydroxylation reaction. Non-hydroxylated collagen is commonly termed pro-collagen.

It was first isolated in 1902 from gelatin. Excretion of abnormal quantities of hydroxyproline is a symptom of the connective-tissue disease called Marfan's syndrome.
The herb St John's Wort is a very popular ingredient in over-the-counter supplements in Europe for the treatment of anxiety and depression, but includes a host of other health benefits as well.

!!St John's Wort is required for
St John's wort, (Hypericum perforatum) has been used for the past 2,000 years as a medicinal herb, and has today become popular again since it has few side effects and contra-indications. It has been used to great effect in the treatment of minor depression, tension and anxiety, but is also used to fight bacterial and viral infections, assists as an anti-inflammatory, a mild analgesic as well as a mild diuretic. REFERENCE

Saint John's Wort has also been used in assisting with insomnia, neurosis, neuralgia, tinnitis, bruising, rheumatic pain and inflammation as well as aiding in wound healing.

The use of St John's Wort to treat bruises and to assist with wound healing has not been thoroughly tested clinically, but is an historical use of this herb.

Some people however find that it does not have a relaxing effect alone, but find it sedating - and in this instance those so affected would be advised to take this product at bed time, and not during the day.

Although it is not certain which active component in St John's Wort is responsible for its properties, it does contain polycyclic phenols, hypericin, pseudo hypericin, flavonoids (hyperoside, quercitin, isoquercitrin, rutin) kaempferol, luteolin, biapigenin & hyperforin.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Large dosages may induce photosensitivity (sun sensitivity) in certain people, and those finding this effect would be well advised to reduce their dosage.

It has also been reported that very large dosages may interfere with the absorption of iron and some other minerals, and may also be contra-indicated for people taking cyclosporine - a drug given to prevent rejection when organ transplants are done, as well as for patients suffering from HIV / AIDS since it could also interfere with the AIDS drugs given.

Some female individuals have also found that St John's Wort interfere with the effectiveness of their birth control medication.

!!Other interesting points
Women have found relief from PMS, specifically cramping, when taking this ingredient.
Inositol is needed for health at cellular level and a fair concentration is found in the lens of the human eye as well as the heart.

Men taking extra inositol reported that their hair loss had improved, with less hair falling out - although this has not been tested under clinical situations.

!!Inositol is required for
Inositol plays an important part in the health of cell membranes especially the specialized cells in the brain, bone marrow, eyes and intestines. The function of the cell membranes is to regulate the contents of the cells, which makes effective functioning possible.

Inositol is said to promote healthy hair, hair growth, and helps in controlling estrogen levels and may assist in preventing breast lumps.

It may also be of benefit in reducing blood cholesterol levels.

!!Deficiency of inositol
If your intake is not sufficient, you may experience symptoms such as eczema, hair loss, constipation, and abnormalities of the eyes and raised cholesterol.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Supplementation is usually 100 mg per day

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxic effects known, but diarrhea has been noted with the intake of very high dosage of inositol

!!Best used with
[[Choline]] should be taken in the same amount as inositol and the best is to take the entire B group vitamins with it, Vitamin E, vitamin C as well as folic acid and linoleic acid is thought to increase the functioning of inositol.

!!When more inositol may be required
Taking of long term antibiotics may increase your need for inositol, as well as if you consume a lot of coffee.

!!Enemy of inositol
Coffee kills of this nutrient.

!!Food sources
Inositol is available from both plant and animal sources. The plant form in which inositol is available is phytic acid, which can bind with minerals and so affect their absorption negatively.

The body is also able to manufacture this factor. Inositol is available from wheat germ, brewers yeast. bananas, liver, brown rice, oat flakes, nuts, unrefined molasses, raisins and vegetables.
Iodine in our food is dependant on the iodine found in the ground where the food is grown, in the food the animals receive, as it influences the iodine content in the meat and eggs we consume.

!!Iodine is required for
Iodine is used in the production of hormones (such as thyroxine, thyroxin) by the thyroid gland, which in turn regulates the conversion of fat to energy, stabilizing our body weight as well as controlling our cholesterol levels.

These hormones produced from the iodine are also needed to help form our bones, as well as keeping our skin, nails, hair and teeth in prime condition.

Some indication also exists that iodine is helpful in preventing cancer of the breast and womb.

!!Deficiency
Iodine is not stored in the body, but various items in our diet do supply iodine, so a shortage does not happen overnight.

When iodine is deficient the thyroid gland enlarges (referred to as a goiter) to maximize the amount of iodine to be extracted from the blood, and if this problem is not corrected, a shortage of this hormone in the body may lead to constipation, obesity, weakness, mental slowness as well as mental problems.

Goiter is not always the cause of iodine deficiency, but can in some cases be caused certain micro-organisms.

Iodine is also thought to help protect the thyroid from the effects of radiation, and the Polish government handed out iodine tablets to their population after the explosion at Chernobyl.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important and 150 micrograms per day is indicated as dosage.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high iodine intake
Although too low levels of iodine can cause a goiter, so too can too high intake of iodine

!!Best used with
Iodine is rapidly eliminated from the body, so high intake or toxicity is not very likely, but if your diet is supplement with too much kelp or iodine you could have problems with acne or skin rashes.

!!When more may be required
When iodine in the soil is very low, or if very little seafood is consumed a person may want to check their iodine intake, or when breast feeding or pregnant as well as being on a sea-salt restricted diet.

!!Other interesting points
If you have an under-active thyroid try and avoid large amounts of raw cabbage, peaches, pears, spinach and Brussels sprouts as they may block the absorption of iodine.

!!Food sources
Iodine is found in eggs, milk, sea fish and sea food, sea vegetables - such as kelp, asparagus etc.
Iron is an essential element carrying oxygen, forming part of the oxygen-carrying proteins - hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscles. It is also a component of various enzymes and is concentrated in bone marrow, liver, and spleen.

!!Iron is required for
The production of hemoglobin and myoglobin (the form of hemoglobin found in muscle tissue) requires this nutrient.

It is also needed for the oxygenation of red blood cells, a healthy immune system and for energy production.

!!Deficiency of iron
Severe iron deficiency results in anemia, and red blood cells that have a low hemoglobin concentration. Anemia in pregnancy increases the risk of having a premature baby or a baby with low birth weight.

In young children, iron deficiency can manifest in behavioral abnormalities (including reduced attention), reduced cognitive performance and slow growth. In adults, severe iron deficiency anemia impairs physical work capacity.

Symptoms of iron deficiency may include fatigue, poor stamina, intestinal bleeding, excessive menstrual bleeding, nervousness, heart palpitations and shortness of breath. It may also cause your mouth corners to crack, brittle hair, difficulty in swallowing, digestive disturbances and spoon shaped nails with ridges running lengthwise.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

The indicated dosage for males is 10 mg per day, and 18 mg per day for females.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
High iron content in the body has been linked to cancer and heart disease.

People of European origin, sometimes have a genetic abnormality for storing excessive iron (1:300) where ten percent of these populations carry a gene for hemochromatosis. Iron supplements are the leading cause of death in children - so keep the supplements out of the reach of children.

A fatal dose for children could be as little as 600 milligrams. Iron can be poisonous and if too much is taken over a long period could result in liver and heart damage, diabetes and skin changes.

Large iron supplementation may also contribute to the hardening of arteries, heart disease and reducing zinc absorption.

!!Best used with
Iron should be taken between meals with Vitamin C, while manganese, copper, molybdenum, vitamin A and the B group are also beneficial. Iron in a supplement should be almost balanced with zinc.

!!When more may be required
Iron absorption is negatively affected when oxalic acid -found in spinach, Swiss chard, tea, coffee soy and some pulses. Antacid medication, coffee and tea drinkers at mealtimes, people on calorie restricted diets and women with a heavy flow during menstruation may require more iron.

!!Enemy of iron
Try to cut out tea and coffee at mealtimes. Iron supplements should not be taken together with calcium, zinc or vitamin E if in the form of ferrous sulfate.

!!Other interesting points
Some research being conducted is to test the possibility of high iron stores in the body being responsible for an increased risk to chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease, through oxidative mechanisms.

!!Food sources of iron
Heme iron (present in red blood cells and muscles) found in meat, poultry and fish - is readily absorbed; Non-heme iron - with the absorption more influenced by other dietary factors, are present in cereals, fruits, grains, beans and vegetables.
Isoleucine is an essential amino acid and is part of the three "branched chain amino acids" (BCAA) - the other two being leucine and valine. This amino acid cannot be manufactured in the body, and needs to be supplied in the diet and was first isolated in 1904 from fibrin.

!!Isoleucine is required for
Isoleucine, together with the other two branched-chain-amino-acids promote muscle recovery after physical exercise and on its own it is needed for the formation of hemoglobin as well as assisting with regulation of blood sugar levels as well as energy levels. It is also involved in blood-clot formation.

!!Deficiency of isoleucine
Deficiency of isoleucine is only found in people deficient in dietary protein but symptoms may include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, depression, confusion as well as irritability. Symptoms of deficiency may mimic the symptoms of hypoglycemia. This nutrient has also been found to be deficient in people with mental and physical disorders, but more research is required on this.

Also see leucine and valine, and look at branched-chain amino acids.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Most people ingest enough isoleucine from their diet, although some individuals do supplement their diet with about 650 - 700 mg of isoleucine per day (based on a 70 kg body), or worked out to 10 - 12 mg per kg of body weight per day.

If you are taking a supplement of isoleucine, keep it in balance with the other two branched-chain-amino-acids leucine and valine in the formula of 2 mg of leucine and valine for each 1 mg of isoleucine.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Consuming higher amounts of isoleucine is not associated with any health risks for most people but those with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without medical advise.

People ingesting higher amounts of isoleucine report elevated urination.

!!When more may be required
People involved with strenuous athletic activity under extreme pressure and high altitude may benefit from supplementation of this nutrient.

!!Food sources of isoleucine
It is present in almonds, cashews, chicken, eggs, fish, lentils, liver, meat etc.
Lactase is required to break down lactose (a primary sugar found in mammalian milk) and is produced in the small intestine, which breaks lactose into two simpler sugars.

!!Lactase is required for
It is required the digestion of milk and milk products.

Some people do not produce enough lactase and are often referred to as lactose intolerant, and symptoms may include cramps, gas as well as diarrhea.

It has also been suggested that lactose intolerant people have a problem with calcium absorption, and this may also need to be checked, by a lactose intolerant person.

!!Deficiency of lactase
If the intestines do not produce enough (or any) lactase, the milk sugar (lactose) is not digested and moves into the colon, where it is fermented by bacteria - producing hydrogen, carbon dioxide and organic acids, which can result in diarrhea, gas and cramps.

To test for lactose intolerance, drink two glasses of milk on an empty stomach and watch for any gastrointestinal symptoms. Do the same test but substitute the milk with cheese.

If you have any symptoms from the milk, but not from the cheese (which contains very little lactose), you might be lactose intolerant. If you have symptoms from both, it may indicate an allergy to dairy.

If you suffer from lactose intolerance, it might be helpful to have a lactase supplement before having any meal containing lactose.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
It is safe, and no toxicity or side effects have been reported when taking a dietary supplement.

!!When more may be required
A supplement may be beneficial to people suffering from diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn, irritable bowel syndrome as well as sufferers of migraine headaches, since certain studies indicate that migraine sufferers are deficient in lactase.

!!Other interesting points
It is an interesting point that when yogurt is eaten, it does not easily trigger symptoms in lactose-intolerant people.
Lactose, also called milk sugar, is not found in plants, and is also one of the less sweet sugars.

It is not very soluble, and being only about 1/6 as sweet as sucrose, is the reason why milk has a rather bland taste.

This sugar is only formed in the mammary glands of lactating mothers - both human and animal.

On hydrolysis of this sugar, only one molecule of glucose, and one of galactose are formed.
Lecithin is a type of lipid and is needed by every living cell in the human body. Cell membranes as well as the protective sheath surrounding the brain are composed mostly of lecithin and is also found in the muscles and nerve cells. It consists mainly of the vitamin B ingredients choline as well as linoleic acid and inositol.

Lecithin is partly soluble and acts as an emulsifying agent in the body, and is helpful in the prevention of arteriosclerosis, improving brain function and aiding in the absorption of thiamin by the liver as well as vitamin A by the intestines.

It is known to promote energy and to repair damage to the liver caused by alcoholism and toxicity.

Because of the emulsifying properties of lecithin it enables fat, such as cholesterol and other lipids, to be dispersed in water and be removed from the body. It is vitally important in the protection of fatty build-up in the body.
Leucine is an essential amino acid, which cannot be manufactured in the body and is part of the three branched-chain-amino-acids. Supplements and protein powders that contain leucine are used extensively by bodybuilders and other athletes to promote muscle recovery, although it has not produced significant changes in body composition.

!!Leucine is required for
Leucine helps with the regulation of blood-sugar levels, the growth and repair of muscle tissue (such as bones, skin and muscles), growth hormone production, wound healing as well as energy regulation. It can assist to prevent the breakdown of muscle proteins that sometimes occur after trauma or severe stress. It may also be beneficial for individuals with phenylketonuria - a condition in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine

!!Deficiency of leucine
Deficiency of this nutrient is rare, since all protein foods contains it, but vegans and vegetarians without adequate protein sources may suffer from a deficiency. Hypoglycemia symptoms may appear if the diet is deficient and may include dizziness, fatigue, headaches, irritability etc.

Also see isoleucine and valine, and look at branched-chain amino acids.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

The daily dosage of leucine is about 16 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 1120 mg for a 70 kg male. See good combinations as well.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Consistent evidence of toxicity has not been linked to leucine supplements.

A high intake of leucine could contribute to pellagra as well as increase the amount of ammonia present in the body.

!!Best used with
If you are taking a supplement of leucine, keep it in balance with the other two branched-chain-amino-acids isoleucine and valine in the formula of 2 mg of leucine and valine for each 1 mg of isoleucine.

!!Food sources of leucine
It is found in protein foods, as well as brown rice, beans, nuts and whole wheat.
Although we all think of candy when we hear the word licorice (liquorice), it has been used as a medicinal remedy for centuries from the early Egyptian and Grecian times where it was used for treating coughs and lung problems.

The licorice plant is part of the pea family and is found in Turkey and Greece, although it is propagated in many parts of the world.

This herb contains asparagine, biotin, choline, folic acid, glycyrrhizin, gum, inositol, lecithin, manganese, pantothenic acid, PABA, pentacyclic terpenes, phosphorus, vitamin B1, B2, B3, B6 and E.

It is the glycyrrhizin that stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones, reduces inflammation and helps increase the level of interferon (which is made by the immune system).

The major benefit of licorice is the assistance it gives to respiratory problems as it fights the viruses attaching the respiratory tract, as well as relieving the symptoms such as couching and sore throat.

It is also useful in thinning the mucus when having a respiratory problem, making it possible for the body to get rid of the mucus.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is also a traditional Chinese ingredient in herbal remedies and is referred to as Zhi Gan Cao and affects the channels of the heart, lung, spleen and stomach, and is thought to lengthen life.

In Chinese medicine it is used to revitalize the heart, while treating palpitations, strengthening the spleen and lungs - specially for wheezing, easing respiratory illnesses, coughing and phlegm while also protecting the stomach.

With its purported anti-inflammatory action it is helpful to fight infections and relieving arthritis as well as helping with the healing of stomach ulcers.

Some research also indicates strong anti-viral properties, making it a good ingredient to help boost the immune system. The viral fighting action is also useful in assisting inflammatory conditions, such as hepatitis.

Another plus point for licorice is the useful effect it may have with minor menstrual problems and menopause, since it exerts a mild estrogenic effect.

Creams made from licorice have a calming effect on the skin and is useful in eczema.

!!Contra indications of licorice
Large amounts of licorice taken over a prolonged period may elevate blood pressure, and should not be used by individuals suffering from severe menstrual problems, diabetes, hypoglycemia, glaucoma or a history of strokes.
Lipase is the enzyme required to break down fats and lipids (to give di- and mono- glycerides, glycerol and free fatty acids) and is produced in the pancreas, and is released in the small intestine. Pancreatin, produced by the pancreas also contains two other enzymes -protease and amylase.

!!Lipase is required for
Digesting fats and lipids are more difficult since they have to be carried by a water based transport system - the blood and lymph.

Although fat digestion is not concentrated in the stomach, gastric lipase is the digestant to attend to this, and will digest egg yolk and cream, since they are already emulsified fats.

In order for fat to be digested properly, the liver starts this process emulsifying the large fat molecules, and bile breaks it down to small droplets, allowing the lipase to start its work.

Fat digestion in the small intestine is reliant on a pancreatic secretion called pancreatin containing lipase as well as protease and amylase.

In some vegetarian diets, very little bile is produced since the liver is not stimulated to produce bile, with the result that the large fat molecules are not properly emulsified, making it difficult for the lipase to bind, leading to incomplete or reduced fat absorption.

!!Deficiency of lipase
A shortage of lipase in the body may lead to high cholesterol, difficulty in losing weight, a tendency to diabetes, high urine sugar levels - which some believe could lead to arthritis, bladder problems, gall stones, hay fever, prostate problems, heart problems etc.

With too little lipase, the cell membranes permeability is not at optimum, and nutrients cannot enter the cell, while wastes cannot leave the cell.

There is also a tendency amongst people suffering from being lipase deficient, to have a problem with electrolyte balance as well.

Muscle spasms and a spastic colon is also reported as being a symptom of lipase deficiency.

People suffering with a spastic colon may also be lipase deficient as well as the condition of vertigo (Meniere's Disease) which is dizziness made worse by movement.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxicity or side effects have been reported.

!!When more may be required
People with a tendency to pancreatic insufficiency and cystic fibrosis may benefit from a lipase supplement as well as those with celiac disease, Crohn's disease, as well as those suffering indigestion and heartburn.

!!Enemy of lipase
Betaine HCI or hydrochloric acid should not be taken with this in supplement form, as it might destroy this and other enzymes.

!!Food sources of lipase
It is found in a variety of mammalian and microbial sources.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is also called interstitial-cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) and is one of two gonadotropic hormones (hormones which regulate the gonads - sex glands).

It is produced by the pituitary gland and is a glycoprotein, operating in conjunction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

In females it promotes the transformation of the graafian follicle (a small egg-containing vesicle in the ovary) into the corpus luteum, an endocrine gland that secretes progesterone.

In males it stimulates the development of the interstitial cells of the testes that secrete testosterone, the male sex hormone.
Lysine is an essential amino acid and is a basic building block of all protein. This nutrient was first isolated in 1889 from casein.

!!Lysine is required for
It is required for growth and bone development in children, assists in calcium absorption and maintaining the correct nitrogen balance in the body and maintaining lean body mass. Furthermore it is needed to produce antibodies, hormones, enzymes, collagen formation as well as repair of tissue.

Since it helps with the building of muscle protein, it is useful for patients recovering from injuries and recovery after operations, and there might be use in lysine to help maintain healthy blood vessels. It also seems to assist in fighting herpes and cold sores.

!!Deficiency of lysine
Although a deficiency of lysine is rare, since it is found in so many protein foods, the symptoms may include anemia, enzyme disorders, lack of energy, hair loss, bloodshot eyes, weight loss and retarded growth as well as reproductive problems, poor appetite and poor concentration.

People on a vegan or vegetarian diet, using grains as their only source of protein are often deficient in this nutrient.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

The daily dosage of leucine is about 12 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 840 mg for a 70 kg male.

Pregnant or breast feeding mothers, as well as patients with liver or kidney problems, must first consult a health professional before taking lysine supplements.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity has not been determined but animals fed high amounts of lysine, have shown a tendency to gallstones as well as elevated cholesterol -but these tendencies have not been proven in humans.

Diarrhea and stomach cramps may be indicative in high dosage, but these are not consistent symptoms.

!!When more may be required
Athletes, burn patients and people suffering from herpes and cold sores may benefit from an increase of lysine.

Older people could also require more lysine, as one study found older men required more of this nutrient than younger men.

!!Other interesting points
Lysine must be used with care in supplement form when taking antibiotics as well.

!!Food sources of lysine
Good sources of lysine are found in cheese, eggs, lime beans, potatoes, milk, meat and brewer's yeast.
Magnesium plays an important role in at least 300 fundamental enzymatic reactions and for that reason is of vital importance in our health.

!!Magnesium is required for
Magnesium helps with formation of bone and teeth and assists the absorption of calcium and potassium. Where calcium stimulates the muscles, magnesium is used to relax the muscles. It is further needed for cellular metabolism and the production of energy through its help with enzyme activity It is used for muscle tone of the heart and assists in controlling blood pressure.

Together with vitamin B 12, it may prevent calcium oxalate kidney stones. It helps prevent depression, dizziness, muscle twitching, and pre-menstrual syndrome. It can help prevent the calcification of soft tissue and may help prevent cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and certain forms of cancer, and it may reduce cholesterol levels.

Magnesium assists the parathyroid gland to process vitamin D, and a shortage here can cause absorption problems with calcium.

!!Deficiency of magnesium
A severe deficiency caused by mal-absorption, chronic alcoholism, renal dysfunction, or the use of certain medications can cause neuromuscular manifestations, and personality changes can occur.

Many cardiovascular problems are indicated with magnesium in short supply and rapid heartbeats as well as fatigue, irritability, and seizure can occur. Insomnia, poor memory, painful periods, depression, hypertension and confusion may also indicative of magnesium in short supply.

It is used for the management of premature labor, and for the prophylaxis and treatment of seizures in toxemia of pregnancy. A deficiency may also be a contributing factor to incontinence in older people and bedwetting in children.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Males 19-30 years 400 mg per day Males >30 years 420 mg Females 19-30 years 310 mg Females >30 years 320 mg.

In supplementation it is normally taken in dosages of 750 - 1,000 mg per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
If you have kidney or heart problems first check with your medical practitioner before taking a magnesium supplement as an over supply can in severe cases lead to coma and death.

!!Best used with
It is best taken with calcium, iron, B group vitamins as well as vitamin E.

!!When more magnesium may be required
It has been found that people under stress have low magnesium levels, indicating that magnesium may be beneficial to those under stress.

!!Enemy of magnesium
Consumption of alcohol, diuretics, high levels of zinc and vitamin D may increase your magnesium requirement. This will also apply if you are taking diuretics (water pills), have diarrhea or perspiring heavily as well as taking large amounts of vitamin C.

!!Other interesting points
Magnesium is being investigated for the treatment of migraine headaches.

!!Food sources
Magnesium is found in dairy products, fish, meat and seafood, as well as in legumes, apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, whole grain cereals, nuts, dark green vegetables, and cocoa, while hard water and mineral water may also supply it in fair quantities.
[img[wiki.gif]]
[[Amino acids]]
[[Carbohydrates]]
[[Enzymes]]
[[Minerals]] 
[[Trace elements]]
[[Vitamins]]
[[Other nutrients]]
[[RDA tables]]

Maltase is an enzyme that is the catalyst in the hydrolysis of disaccharide maltose to the simple sugar form - glucose, and is found in plants, bacteria, and yeast; and in humans

!!Maltase is required for
Although the enzyme can be ingested in the diet, it is thought to be able to be manufactured in the body by the mucus membrane lining in the intestinal wall.

When starch is eaten, it is partially digested and transformed to maltose by both the saliva enzymes and pancreatic enzymes called amylases.

The maltase secreted in the intestines, then converts this maltose into a more ready usable sugar glucose, or the glucose could also be stored in the liver for future use.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxicity or side effects have been reported.

!!Enemy of maltase
Betaine HCI or hydrochloric acid should not be taken with this in supplement form, as it might destroy this and other enzymes.

!!Food sources of maltase
It is found in a variety of mammalian and microbial sources.
Maltose, also called malt sugar, is not found free in nature, but is formed by enzymes or acid hydrolysis from starch.

On hydrolysis of maltose, two molecules of glucose is formed and are an intermediate product are the digestion of starch.

It is easily used by the body, and is sometimes used, together with dextrin, a polysaccharide, in infant formulas.
Manganese is one of those humble trace elements so often overlooked, yet essential to your health.

!!Manganese is required for
It enables the body to utilize vitamin C, B1, biotin as well as choline. It is used in the manufacture of fat, sex hormones and breast milk in females.

It is thought to also help neutralize free radicals as well as being of assistance in preventing diabetes and needed for normal nerve function.

Manganese is also indicated in stimulating growth of the connective tissue and is also thought to be of importance in brain functioning.

!!Deficiency of manganese
Deficiencies are rare but would include poor bone growth, problems with the disks between the vertebrae, birth defects, and problems with blood glucose levels and reduced fertility. Serious deficiency in children can result in paralysis, deafness and blindness.

Manganese is not easily absorbed but since small amounts are needed deficiencies are not very general.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important and the indicated dosage is 2 milligrams per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity by diet is rare. Miners who are exposed to high levels of manganese, which can also be inhaled, can cause "manganese madness".

!!Best used with
It is best taken with vitamins B1, E, calcium as well as phosphorous.

!!When more may be required
A higher intake may be necessary when breast-feeding or when taking a calcium or phosphorous supplement.

!!Enemy of element
Manganese is lost in milling and absorption is also negatively influenced in the presence of large amounts of calcium, phosphorous, zinc, cobalt and soy protein.

Manganese is depleted in the soil by extensive use of chemical fertilizers or too much lime, and food grown in such soil will have a low manganese content.

!!Food sources of manganese
It is found in nuts, avocados, eggs, brown rice, spices, whole grains, leafy greens as well as tea and coffee.
Methionine is a sulfur containing essential amino acid and was first isolated in 1922 from casein and belongs to a group of compounds called lipotropics - the others in this group include choline, inositol, and betaine. It is important in the process of methylation where methyl is added to compounds as well as being a precursor to the amino acids cystine and cysteine.

!!Methionine is required for
It assists in the breakdown of fats and thereby prevents the build-up of fat in the arteries, as well as assisting with the digestive system and removing heavy metals from the body since it can be converted to cysteine, which is a precursor to gluthione, which is of prime importance in detoxifying the liver.

The amino acid methionine is also a great antioxidant as the sulfur it supplies inactivates free radicals. It may also be used to treat depression, arthritis pain as well as chronic liver disease - although these claims are still under investigation. Some studies have also indicated that methionine might improve memory recall.

It is also one of the three amino acids needed by the body to manufacture creatine monohydrate, a compound essential for energy production and muscle building.

!!Deficiency of methionine
Severe deficiency may manifest in dementia, while lesser deficiencies may be known by symptoms like fatty liver, slow growth, weakness, edema and skin lesions.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

The daily dosage of leucine is about 12 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 840 mg for a 70 kg male.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
It has been suggested that a high intake of methionine, in the presence of B vitamin deficiencies, may increase the risk for arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) by increasing blood levels of cholesterol and a compound called homocysteine; and that excessive methionine intake, with an inadequate intake of folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, may increase the rate of conversion of methionine to homocysteine - both these theories have not been proven in humans.

!!Best used with
If you are considering taking a methionine supplement, it is best to balance it with choline and inositol.

!!When more may be required
People with liver problems, pancreatitis, HIV/AIDS as well as Parkinson's disease may consider obtaining more methionine, after consultation with their health professional, and older people may also benefit from a slightly higher intake of this nutrient.

Women on birth control pills could also look at this nutrient, since it promotes the excretion of estrogen. People suffering from schizophrenia could investigate taking extra methionine since it reduces the level of histidine in the body, a level normally higher in people suffering from schizophrenia.

!!Food sources
Methionine is found in good quantities in meat, fish, beans, eggs, garlic, lentils, onions, yogurt and seeds.
Methylcellulose is part of the group "complex carbohydrates" and can absorb large quantities of water.

Methylcellulose, and other cellulose derivatives are used in the manufacture of low calorie foods such as imitation syrups and salad dressings low in calories.
Although minerals may be required in small quantities, they are still vitally important to our general health.

[[Calcium]]
[[Chloride]]
[[Magnesium]]
[[Phosphorus]]
[[Potassium]]
[[Sodium]]
[[Sulfur]]

Modified starch are normal natural starches that have been altered chemically or physically to assist in the food processing industry.

They can be cross-bonded, esterified or converted by acids or enzymes to have greater viscosity, clarity etc.

They have used in canning, instant puddings, frozen foods etc.
Molybdenum is a component of three different enzymes, which is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids - DNA & RNA - iron as well as food into energy. These three enzymes are sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase.

!!Molybdenum is required for
Molybdenum assists in the breaking down of sulfite toxin build-ups in the body, and may prevent cavities. With these qualities, there might be evidence of antioxidant properties in this nutrient. It assists the body by fighting the nitrosamines, which are associated with cancer, and may help to prevent anemia. It is needed for normal cell function and nitrogen metabolism.

Molybdenum deficiencies in older males have also been linked to impotence and may be of value in fighting mouth and gum disorders. Molybdenum is part of sulfite oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down sulfites. Sulfites are found in protein food as well as chemical preservatives in certain foods and drugs. Should your body not be able to break down these sulfites, a toxic build-up results, and your body may react with an allergic reaction.

These allergic reactions can be respiratory problems such as asthma and others. Molybdenum is also part of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase - both involved in the body's production of genetic material and proteins. Xanthine oxidase also helps the body to oxidize purines and pyrimidines, and produce uric acid, an important waste product.

!!Deficiency of molybdenum
Deficiencies of molybdenum are identified by the absence of the three molybdenum enzymes. The deficiency of this element and the metabolic disorders are accompanied by abnormal excretion of sulfur metabolites, low uric acid concentrations, and elevated hypoxanthine and xanthine excretion.

The absences of sulfite oxidase in metabolic disorder can lead to death at an early age. High rates of esophageal cancer have been reported in regions where the soil levels of molybdenum are low as well as vitamin C intake - although this does not clinically prove that molybdenum might be involved with prevention of certain cancers.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important. A dosage of up to 250 micrograms is considered safe while 15 milligrams can border on toxic.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Dosages of more than 15 milligrams may be toxic and excess molybdenum in the body can interfere with the metabolism of copper in the body, can give symptoms of gout, and may cause diarrhea, anemia and slow growth.

!!When more may be required
If your diet consists mainly of refined foods or if you are taking copper supplements, you might be running low on molybdenum.

!!Enemy of molybdenum
An excess of copper, tungsten and sulfates can deplete molybdenum. Heat and moisture change supplemental molybdenum.

!!Food sources of molybdenum
Milk, lima beans, spinach, liver, grain, peas and other dark green leafy vegetables contain molybdenum.
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are classified according to whether they are aldehyde or ketone derivatives as well as the number of atoms contained in the molecule.

Single hexoses, glucose and galactose require no digestion and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.

Hexoses contain six carbon atoms, and are found in foods, while pentoses, ribose and deoxyribose contain five carbon atoms and are produced during the metabolism of foodstuffs.
This Brazilian herb muira puama, also referred to as murapuama, is mostly known for its effective help with erectile dysfunction and increasing libido and as an aphrodisiac - but is also an excellent tonic for increasing general well-being and mental tiredness.

Muira puama is a bush / small tree up to 5 meters in height and produces pungent flowers with a jasmine like fragrance.

The indigenous tribes in Brazil have used the roots and bark internally in a tea as an aphrodisiac, for treating sexual debility and erectile dysfunction, nervous system disorders, neuralgia, baldness, impotency, gastrointestinal disorders, neuromuscular problems and rheumatism.

Murapuama has been used as a herb in Europe for some time and is listed in the British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, a source on herbal medicine from the British Herbal Medicine Association, and is recommended for the treatment of dysentery and impotence.

It is from the Olacaceae family, and the genus is Ptychopetalum (species olacoides) and is also known as Muira Puama, Marapuama, Marapama, Potency Wood and Potenzholz. The bark and roots are used in herbal treatments.

Although many people are skeptical about sexual stimulants or "herbal viagras" as such, the mura puama herb has been shown by Dr. Jacques Waynberg, a world authority on sexual functioning, of the Institute of Sexology in Paris, France, that it is effective in assisting in increasing sexual desire as well as attaining and maintaining an erection.

The action of the muira puama herb is not fully understood but it seems to assist with both the psychological as well as the physical aspect of sexual function.

!!Muira puama contains
The active constituents are free long-chain fatty acids, sterols, coumarin, alkaloids and essential oils. Chemically, it contains .05% muirapuamine, .4% fat, .5% alkaloids, .6% pholbaphene, .6% alpha-resinic acid, .7% beta resinic acid, .5% of a mixture of esters including behenic acid, lupeol and beta-sitosterol, as well as tannin, volatile oils and fatty acids.

Muira puama is considered a safe herb, whereas another herbal sexual stimulant called yohimbine can induce anxiety, panic attacks, and hallucinations in some individuals, as well as elevated blood pressure, high heart rate, dizziness, headache, and skin flushing.

Although some people maintain that muira puama is just a general tonic, there are far more confirmations out there in the real world from satisfied users, to the fact that it is great for assisting with erectile dysfunction and increasing sexual enjoyment.
NAC - N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an altered form of the amino acid cysteine, which is commonly found in food and synthesized by the body

!!NAC is required for
NAC may assist to break down mucus and used in the treatment of bronchitis - for this reason it is used as an inhalant in hospitals in the treatment of bronchitis. It assists the body in synthesizing glutathione and helps to protect the body from acetaminophen (the ingredient in Tylenol).

!!Deficiency of NAC
Not determined.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage is not known but 250-1500 mg per day is used.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity has not been determined, but may increase the amount of zinc excreted in the urine and for this reason it may be a good idea to use zinc and copper supplements if using N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for extended periods.

!!When more may be required
People with bronchitis, emphysema, infected HIV or busy with chemotherapy might find benefit from this nutrient.

!!Food sources of NAC
Cysteine, the amino acid from which NAC is derived, is found in most high-protein foods.
The drinking of olive leaf tea has been a way for many centuries by Middle Eastern cultures to treat disorders such as coughs, sore throat, cystitis, fever and gout. In addition to the infusion, poultices were also made of the olive leaves to treat boils, rashes, warts and other skin problems.

The effect that olive leaf extract has on the body has been researched and looked at for some time, and has become a much talked about ingredient used in the treatment of fevers and infections.

Although olive leaf extract is classed as an alternative herbal remedy, it can be helpful in the treatment of the common cold, flu, cold sores (herpes), ear infections, eye infections, nose and throat infections, impetigo, pink eye, parasites, and a host of bacterial, viral and fungal infections.

Many major health claims are being made about olive leaf extract, but since they involve unverified clinical trials we prefer not to list the claimed pathogens that it is said to destroy.

The main constituent of olive leaf is the phytochemical oleuropein, which has broken down to elenolic acid, which have a powerful anti-bacterial effect, and has the ability to interfere with critical amino acid production essential for viruses.

Oleuropein is a bitter monoterpene glycoside of the class known as secoiridoids and is also one of the major components found in the polyphenolic portion of olive oil

Other ingredients include esters, multiple iridoids, rutin, apigenin, luteolin etc.

Animal studies have proven the effectiveness of olive leaf extract to lower blood pressure, but this needs to be verified by human studies.

It further seems helpful in containing viral infections and the spreading of these viruses by inactivating them, and the ability to directly penetrate infected cells and stop viral replication.

In the case of retroviruses, it seems to be able to neutralize the production of reverse transcriptase and protease and also seems to be helpful in stimulating phagocytosis, which is an immune system response in which cells ingest harmful microorganisms and foreign matter.

Some research suggests that olive leaf extract may be a "true anti-viral" compound, as it appears to selectively block an entire virus-specific system.

Because of the above, it may be useful when looking to fight influenza, the common cold, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and other viral infections.

Olive leaf extract also seems to be indicated as useful in boosting the energy levels, assisting with chronic fatigue as well as helping with allergies.

Olive leaf extract has been reported by leading clinicians to offer significant benefit when included as part of an immune system enhancement program designed to combat microorganisms - such as our BodyGuard immune boost supplement.

!!Contra-indications
Olive Leaf Extract is non-toxic, but when killing too many pathogens too quickly (detoxifying), a "die off" or Herxheimer's reaction may occur - which is experienced as flu-like symptoms or allergic attacks. This however only happens with high dosage and normally passes quickly.

Olive leaf extract may inactivate antibiotics and should not be taken while taking antibiotics.
Ornithine is a non-essential amino acid and is manufactured by the body, the amino acid, arginine, is metabolized during urea production and is required by the body as it acts as a precursor of citrulline, proline and glutamic acid.

!!Ornithine is required for
Ornithine is important since it induce the release of growth hormone in the body, which in turn helps with fat metabolism. It is further required for a properly functioning immune system and liver and assists in ammonia detoxification and liver rejuvenation.

It is also of use in healing and repairing skin and tissue and is found in both these body parts. There are some unsupported claims that ornithine promotes muscle building, but this has not been proven.

!!Deficiency of ornithine
Since the body can produce ornithine, a deficiency of this non-essential amino acid is rare.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In human research involving ornithine, several grams are typically used per day, sometimes combined with arginine.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
There are no reported side effects from the use of ornithine, but children, pregnant or nursing mothers, or anybody suffering from schizophrenia should NOT take L-ornithine.

!!Best used with
Arginine is needed for the production of ornithine and should be supplied in adequate quantities to the body. Carnitine also enhances the effect of this nutrient.

!!When more may be required
People recouping after surgery and athletes may benefit from this nutrient.

!!Food sources of ornithine
The body can manufacture ornithine but is abundant in protein foods such as meat, fish, dairy, and eggs.
Other nutrients are also used to obtain optimum health, and include certain herbs and extracts, not normally used in orthodox medicine and nutrition.

[[Apple cider vinegar]]
[[Apple cider vinegar with Centella]]
[[Gotu Kola]](Centella)
[[Adaptogens]]
[[Antioxidants]]
[[Creatine]]
[[Echinacea]]
[[Ginger]]
[[Ginkgo Biloba]]
[[Ginseng]]
[[Goldenseal]]
[[Grape seed extract]]
[[Green Tea]]
[[Licorice]]
[[Muira Puama]]
[[Olive leaf extract]]
[[Phytochemicals (Phytosterols)]]
[[St John's Wort]]
[[Tribulus terrestris]]
[[Vitamin B15 - pangamic acid]]
[[Vitamin B13 - orotic acid]]
[[Vitamin B17 - laetrile, amygdalin]]
[[Vitamin F]] - essential fatty acids
[[Vitamin P - bioflavonoids]]
[[Vitamin T]]
[[Vitamin U]]

Although some of these ingredients may not have recommended dietary allowances stipulated, and even though some might be products of natural origin, it does not mean that they are harmless when taken in excess.

Just keep in mind that arsenic is also "natural" and although some traditional medicines use it (very much diluted) as a cure for headaches, it is deadly if taken even in very small doses. Just because a product is of natural origin does not automatically mean that it is safe - take hemlock as another example.

But items listed above may be of immense benefit to your general health if taken correctly.
PABA is the shortened name for para-aminobenzoic acid that is often thought of as only an ingredient used in sunscreens, while it is in actual fact a nutritional ingredient as well. Since it is a moiety of PGA, a form of folic acid, some health professionals do not consider it a vitamin, but only a B-complex factor.

!!PABA is required for
PABA is used to improve the protein used in the body, it relates to red blood cell formation as well as assisting the manufacture of folic acid in the intestines. Para-aminobenzoic acid is used in sunscreen preparations since it can help protect the skin against ultra-violet radiation.

It has been linked to hair growth as well as reversing the graying of hair, but these results are disappointing. People suffering from vitiligo, over-pigmentation of skin, or without pigment in some spots, have reported an improvement of the skin after more PABA was ingested.

PABA also assists with breaking down of protein, the formation of red blood cells and maintaining intestinal flora.

!!Deficiency of PABA
When PABA is in short supply fatigue, irritability, nervousness and depression might manifest itself as well as constipation. Weeping eczema has also been noted in people with PABA deficiency as well as patchy areas on the skin.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No recommended dosage but 50 mg per day is usually used in supplementation.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
When higher than factor (SPF) 8 sunscreens are used, the manufacture of vitamin D in the body may be reduced. Nausea, skin rashes and vomiting might be indicative of PABA taken in excess.

Excessive levels of PABA are stored in the body and may cause liver damage.

!!Best used with
Vitamin C and the B group vitamins, plus Folic Acid are best taken with PABA.

!!When more may be required
Long term antibiotic use may require more PABA from the body, but take note of PABA affecting the ability of sulfa drugs. Although not documented in medical terms, some women having problems falling pregnant claim conceiving after increasing PABA in their diet.

!!Enemy of PABA
Since a ban was placed on the sale of OTC supplements containing large a single dosage of PABA, very little new research has been done.

!!Other interesting points
PABA may make sulfa drugs ineffectual.

!!Food sources
PABA is found in liver, kidney, brewer's yeast, molasses, whole grains, mushrooms and spinach, and can be made by intestinal bacteria.
Pectin is classified as a polysaccharide under the carbohydrate content of nutrition.

Commercial pectin is usually available in either powder or liquid form.

Natural pectin is also found in apple cider vinegar (apple cider vinegar) and although it cannot be digested, it does have great value as fiber in the diet.

It is also present in the core and albedo of lemons.
Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is also one of the aromatic amino acids that exhibit ultraviolet radiation absorption properties and is the most commonly found aromatic amino acid.

It can be converted in the body to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize two important neurotransmitters -dopamine and norepinephrine. It is available in three different forms - L-, D-and DL-. The L- form is the most common and the type in which it is incorporated into the body's proteins. The D- form acts as a painkiller and the DL- a combination of the two.

!!Phenylalanine is required for
It is used in elevating the mood since it is so closely involved with the nervous system, as well as help with memory and learning and has been used as an appetite suppressant.

People suffering from Parkinson's disease It is DLPA (or the D- or L-form alone) is used to treat depression and the D form may also be helpful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and chronic pain in both osteo-arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis with mixed results Increases blood levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine - all three required for neurotransmission.

!!Deficiency of phenylalanine
Dietary deficiency is rare but symptoms may include lethargy, edema, weakness, skin lesions as well as liver damage and slow growth. A deficiency in diet would only occur with an extremely low protein intake.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety attacks, high blood pressure, diabetes and phenylketonuria, should NOT take it. DLPA supplements may interact with certain antidepressants or stimulants. Please consult your medical professional.

The daily dosage is unknown but supplements are taken at about 14 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 980 mg for a 70 kg male, but since it has powerful mood altering effects, only use under medical supervision.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity is rare in dietary intake but large amounts in supplement form may play havoc with your blood pressure and cause headaches, nausea and heartburn. Large amounts of this nutrient may also cause nerve damage.

Some people cannot metabolize phenylalanine and should not take supplementation of this amino acid.

!!When more may be required
This nutrient could prove of benefit to people suffering from Parkinson's disease, tiredness, depression, busy with alcohol withdrawal, rheumatoid arthritis, osteo arthritis and vitiligo.

!!Food sources of phenylalanine
It is contained in most protein rich foods but good sources are found in dairy products, almonds, avocados, lima beans, peanuts and seeds.
Phosphorus is present in the body and can be found mainly in the bones and muscles - at a total body content of around 400 - 500 grams.

!!Phosphorus is required for
It is very involved with bone and teeth formation as well as most metabolic actions in the body, including kidney functioning, cell growth and the contraction of the heart muscle.

The main inorganic component of bone is calcium phosphate salts while cell membranes are composed largely of phospholipids. While it assists the body in vitamin use (especially some B group vitamins), it also is involved in converting food to energy.

!!Deficiency of phosphorus
Deficiency of this element is unusual but may have symptoms varying from painful bones, irregular breathing, fatigue, anxiety, numbness, skin sensitivity and changes in body weight. A ratio of 2:1 in the diet between phosphorus and calcium can cause low blood calcium levels.

If calcium is in short supply relative to phosphorus there may be increased risks of high blood pressure and bowel cancer.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Males 800 mg per day and females 800 mg per day

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Ingesting dosages of phosphorus exceeding 3 to 4 grams may be harmful as it can interfere with calcium absorption, such as the high level in fizzy soda drinks.

!!Best used with
Calcium and phosphorus must be taken in balance or a deficiency might be formed. Vitamins D and A as well as iron, manganese together with protein and unsaturated fatty acids increase the effectiveness of phosphorus.

!!When more may be required
Aluminum hydroxide used in antacids may interfere with the absorption of phosphorus but a deficiency is most unlikely, as phosphorus is so abundant in our everyday diet.

!!Other interesting points
Keep in mind that calcium and phosphorus must be balanced in the diet.

!!Food sources of phosphorus
Meat, poultry and fish, as well as eggs, seeds, milk, carbonated soft drinks, broccoli, apples, carrots, asparagus, bran, brewer's yeast and corn contain a good source of phosphorus.
Phytochemical supplements have been sold for many years in Germany as well as South Africa as an alternative treatment for a host of problems.

Phytochemicals are used in the fight against aids as well as a host of other diseases, and the low cost involved in this supplement, makes it accessible to most people on any income. Although you might not be suffering from this debilitating illness, you could improve your general health, and may have a more active immune system when adding this humble ingredient to your diet.

In Africa the African wild potato, (Afrika patat, hypoxis) a bitter tasting plant, was used to start research on the qualities exhibited by these phytochemicals.

This wild plant has been used as an herbal treatment for centuries by traditional healers, where the plant is boiled up as a tea. After extensive research, the active ingredients, the sterols and sterolins in the plants, were isolated.

Phytosterols from plant sources, used in this unique formula has been found beneficial in treating many conditions, such as improving the immune system, arthritis and high cholesterol. With the assistance of cholesterol the plant sterols compete for absorption sites with those of cholesterol (an animal sterol), they thus reduce the amount of cholesterol absorbed. Total and LDL (low-density lipid) cholesterol levels can be reduced by the ingestion of phytosterols.

This amazing capsule was specially formulated with great care to provide maximum absorption, and to assist in the body's natural defense mechanisms. If you are looking at increasing your level of energy, stamina and performance to achieve the most in your life, get this supplement today, and start the road to maximum health and optimum enjoyment of life.

Ingredient references

!!Why you benefit from this formula
Phytosterols - nature's little helpers - was combined, in exact quantities, to bring you the best formulated plant sterol product.
*The Phytosterols (plant sterols) formulation of the Zest for Life range consists of a natural vegetable extract in which the plant sterols and their glycosides are extracted in the naturally occurring ratios.
*The plant sterols are beta sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. Although these vitamin-like compounds occur naturally in vegetables, due to refinement, many of our basic foodstuffs are totally lacking in sterols.
*Many of us do not consume a diet that includes a variety of vegetables daily. It therefore makes good sense to supplement our diets with Zest for Life Phytosterols to improve overall nutritional status.
*Much research has been conducted into phytosterols recently. It has been found beneficial in treating various diseases that are prevalent in modern society.
*Research has shown that phytosterols are essential nutrients that need to be consumed daily to ensure optimal functioning of the body's defense mechanisms.
*The plant sterols have been found beneficial in treating high cholesterol, as the plant sterols compete for absorption sites with cholesterol (an animal sterol), they thus reduce the amount of cholesterol absorbed. Total and LDL (low-density lipid) cholesterol levels can be reduced by the ingestion of phytosterols.

''Immune system boost and AIDS''
*People suffering from problems with their immune system, including continuous or repetitive colds and flu, could benefit from adding this humble ingredient to their diet.
*Patients suffering from a AIDS and HIV have found great benefit from taking daily supplements of plant sterols and sterolins, but this must not be seen as a replacement therapy or treatment for any existing therapy or treatment.
*These ingredients so activating the T-cells to start secreting more factors and in doing so, slow down the progress, and stabilizing patients suffering from immune deficiency illnesses.
*Please take note that these ingredients cannot cure any immune system illnesses but can be a valuable tool in assisting with the treatment of immune system diseases.

''Rheumatoid arthritis''
*Sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis have reported greater mobility, less pain and less infection.
*Plant sterols and sterolins are found in a variety of plants and can effectively be extracted as a dietary supplement, at relatively low cost.

''Cancer''
These plant sterols and sterolins have also extensively been used in the treatment of cancers (such as prostate cancer). 
*Some cancer patients have also reported benefits from taking plant sterols and sterolins since it seems that these phytochemicals help in containing the spread of cancer in the body.
*Please take note that this is not a claim for a cancer cure, but merely a statement of what patients have found when using phytochemicals.

In addition numerous animal studies have shown that plant sterols are potentially beneficial treating infections caused by fungi and bacteria, and may be useful in treating tumors of the colon.

!!Dosage
One to two capsules per day, or as directed.
Polysaccharides contain many times more glucose molecules than that of sugars, since they are used for storage of potential energy.

These polysaccharides are normally less soluble than sugars, but are also far more stable. To enable the human body to utilize these nutrients, it must be able to digest them.

Some of this group, like starch and dextrin can be digested, while cellulose and hemicelluloses cannot be digested, but are beneficial for use as fiber in the human diet.
Potassium is one of the electrolytes we all require to maintain health.

!!Potassium is required for
It is needed for growth, building muscles, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity etc.

Potassium, together with sodium - potassium inside the cell and sodium in the fluid surrounding the cell, work together for the nervous system to transmit messages as well as regulating the contraction of muscles.

!!Deficiency of potassium
The kidneys excrete any excesses, but deficiencies are seldom found in people on normal diets, although most people could look at increasing their potassium intake. A deficiency may result in fatigue, cramping legs, muscle weakness, slow reflexes, acne, dry skin, mood changes, irregular heartbeat.

If you are into bodybuilding, it is also a good idea to increase your potassium intake, since potassium is needed to maintain your muscles in good form, controlling your muscle actions, and since potassium is lost in excessive sweating and urine. A great way to include this in your diet is to have a banana, citrus fruit or even a dash of apple cider vinegar.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

A daily intake of about 3,500 milligrams is needed. Potassium is well absorbed, but is not stored in large quantities in the body.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Excessive potassium can be toxic and will affect your heart, but is mainly a problem when you suffer from a problem such as kidney failure.

!!Best used with
A person should take twice as much potassium as sodium, and is best taken with vitamin B6.

!!When more potassium may be required
Potassium is easily lost in the urine, and if large amounts of salt is ingested, it may be wise to take a potassium supplement. If you are suffering from vomiting, diarrhea or extreme sweating you may require more potassium or if your diet includes mostly processed foods, large amounts of caffeine, alcohol, or if you take diuretic pills or laxatives.

If you suffer from diabetes, or suffer from kidney problems do not take a potassium supplement without your doctors consent.

!!Enemy of element
Potassium is lost from food when canning.

!!Other interesting points on potassium
If you suffer from kidney stones, you might benefit from increasing high potassium containing foods in your diet to supply more potassium to your body, as higher potassium levels have proved helpful in preventing kidney stones.

!!Food sources
Potassium is found in fruit, vegetables as well as whole grains, citrus fruit, molasses, fish and unprocessed meats
Proline was first isolated from casein in 1901, and unlike any of the other amino acids it is readily soluble in alcohol. It is a nonessential amino acid and can be synthesized from glutamic acid and does not require dietary sources. As information is very limited on this nutrient, our page is also very short.

!!Proline is required for
Proline improves skin texture and aids collagen formation and helps contain the loss of collagen during aging. Collagen in the skin contains hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, which is formed from proline and lysine, in which ascorbic acid seems to be important in this conversion. Collagen contains about 15 % proline. It is also thought to be important in the maintenance of muscles, joints and tendons.

!!Proline is best used with
According to the current information available it would be recommended that an ample supply of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) be present to maximize the efficiency of proline.

!!Food sources
Proline is mostly found in meat sources.
Protease refers to a group of enzymes whose function it is to break down proteins and are also referred to as proteolytic enzymes or proteinases. The proteins are broken down to their basic building blocks - amino acids.

!!Protease is required for
In order to have the amino acids available to the body, these enzymes have to break down the proteins to free them, and this important compound is also being used in therapies such as oncology, inflammatory conditions and immune control.

It is also valuable in assisting the body to fight infections and onslaughts from viruses, fungi, parasites and bacteria. Protease from aspergillis (Aspergillus Niger / Aspergillus oryzae) may also be able to assist in breaking down dietary proteins and polypeptides which have leaked into the bloodstream as food antigens.

!!Deficiency of protease
A deficiency of this compound can cause anxiety and insomnia, since it will affect the blood alkaline level, and since it is involved in carrying protein-bound calcium in the bloodstream a deficiency may also influence the susceptibility for arthritis, osteoporosis and calcium related diseases.

Since protein conversion is necessary for glucose in the body, a problem with protein digestion can lead to hypoglycemia, irritability as well as mood swings.

It is used in clearing debris from the blood as well as certain viruses and bacteria, and a shortage of it may result in compromising your immune system or at best decrease your immunity. Symptoms of a shortage can include a variety of symptoms such as constipation, parasites, gingivitis, hearing problems, problems with your back, high blood pressure, gum disorders, insomnia etc.

!!Other interesting points
Howell, the original pioneer in enzyme research, developed enzyme supplements from aspergillis oryzae (a fungus) after finding them more effective than animal-based pancreatic supplements, which subsequent research confirmed.

Aspergillis enzymes are also unusually stabile and active under a wide range of pH conditions, which is a very positive point, since animal enzymes (i.e., pepsin, pancreatin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancrelipase, and pancreatic amylase etc.), normally require special pH conditions, often lacking in impaired health conditions.
Protein is required in order to grow and to maintain your body, you need an adequate supply of protein which is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
RDA, or known by its full name, the Recommended Daily Allowance, is busy being revised and will be called the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and is a collaborative effort between the USA and Canada.

RDA

- stands for the Recommended Dietary Allowance, although many refer to it as the Recommended Daily Allowance.

Until publication of the new DRI, we herewith refer to the old RDA schedule, with some of the new DRI worked in, as a point of reference only.

The RDA represents the establishment of a nutritional norm for planning and assessing dietary intake, and are the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered to be adequate to meet the known needs of practically all healthy people.

These figures were first published in 1943 and have been updated and expanded as data became available.

When introducing the new revision of the RDA in 1974, Dr. Alfred E. Harper, the then Chairman of the Committee on Dietary Allowances, Food and Nutrition Board said "...However requirements differ with age and body size; among individuals of the same body size owning to differences in genetic makeup; with the physiologic state of individuals - growth rate, pregnancy, lactation; and with sex. .."

With this in mind, herewith the tables as they stand at the moment:

''Fat Soluble Vitamins''
|!Age|!Energy|!Protein|!Vitamin|!A|!Vitamin|!D|!Vitamin|!E|!Vitamin K|
||k. cal|g|IU|*ug RE|IU|*ug|IU|*mg TE|*ug|
|''Children''|
|4-6|1,800|30/24|2,500|500|400|5|9|7|-/20|
|7-10|2,400/2,000|36/28|3,300|500|400|5|10|7|-/30|
|''Males''|
|15-18|3,000|54/59|5,000|1,000|400|5|15|10|-/65|
|19-24|3,000/2,900|54/58|5,000|1,000|400|5|15|10|-/70|
|25-50|2,700|56/63|5,000|1,000|-|5|15|10|-/80|
|50+|2,400|56/63|5,000|1,000|-|10|15|10|-/80|
|''Females''|
|15-18|2,100|48/44|4,000|800|400|5|12|8|-/55|
|19-24|2,100|46/46|4,000|800|400|5|12|8|-/60|
|25-50|2,000|46/50|4,000|800|-|5|12|8|-/65|
|50+|1,800|46/50|4,000|800|-|10|12|8|-/65|
'* first figure refers to the old RDA listing while the second figure refers to the newer DRI listing

''Water Soluble Vitamins''
|!Age|!Ascorbic Acid|!Folacin/ Folate|!Niacin|!Riboflavin|!Thiamine|!Vitamin B6|!Vitamin B12|
||mg|mcg|mg|mg|mg|mg|mcg|
|''Children''|
|4-6|40/45|200/75|12|1.1|0.9|0.9/1.1|1.5/1.0|
|7-10|40/45|300/100|16/13|1.2|1.2/1.0|1.2|2.0/1.4|
|''Males''|
|15-18|45/60|400/200|20|1.8|1.5|2.0|3.0/2.0|
|19-24|45/60|400/200|20/19|1.8/1.7|1.5|2.0|3.0/2.0|
|25-50|45/60|400/200|18/19|1.6/1.7|1.4/1.5|2.0|3.0/2.0|
|50+|45/60|400/200|16/15|1.5/1.4|1.2|2.0|3.0/2.0|
|''Females''|
|15-18|45/60|400/180|14/15|1.4/1.3|1.1|2.0/1.5|3.0/2.0|
|19-24|45/60|400/180|14/15|1.4/1.3|1.1|2.0/1.6|3.0/2.0|
|25-50|45/60|400/180|13/15|1.2/1.3|1.0/1.1|2.0/1.6|3.0/2.0|
|50+|45/60|400/180|12/13|1.1/1.2|1.0|2.0/1.6|3.0/2.0|
'* first figure refers to the old RDA listing while the second figure refers to the newer DRI listing

''Minerals and others''
|!Age|!Calcium|!Phosphorous|!Iodine|!Iron|!Magnesium|!Zinc|!Selenium|!Fluoride|
||mg|mg|ug|mg|mg|mg|*ug|*mg|
|''Children''|
|4-6|800|800/500|80/90|10|200/130|10|-/20|-/1.1|
|7-10|800|800|110/120|10|250|10|-/30|-/3.2|
|''Males''|
|15-18|1200/1300|1200/1250|150|18/12|400/410|15|-/50|-/3.8|
|19-24|800/1000|800/700|140/150|10|350/400|15|-/70|-/3.8|
|25-50|800/1000|800/700|130/150|10|350/420|15|-/70|-/3.8|
|50+|800/1200|800/700|110/150|10|350/420|15|-/70|-/2.9|
|''Females''|
|15-18|1200/1300|1200/1250|115/150|18/15|300/360|15/12|-/50|-/3.1|
|19-24|800/1000|800/700|100/150|18/15|300/310|15/12|-/55|-/3.1|
|25-50|800/1000|800/700|100/150|18/15|300/320|15/12|-/55|-/3.1|
|50+|800/1200|800/700|80/150|10|300/320|15/12|-/55|-/3.1|
'* first figure refers to the old RDA listing while the second figure refers to the newer DRI listing - age groups have also been changed on certain nutrients to range from 9-13, 14-18,19-30,31-50, 51-70 and 71+ - figures above merely for illustration and information.

Please be advised that these tables above must not be used to treat or diagnose - they are merely brought to you for information, in order to give you a better understanding on the dynamics involved, and the changing importance of vitamins and nutrition as well as their importance in maintaining optimum health.
Selenium used to be treated as a very toxic substance, but modern science now regards it as essential - but in small quantities. An overdose or deficiency of selenium is equally bad, and good steady amounts should be available - but in small quantities.

!!Selenium is required for
One of the main activities of this mineral is its anti-aging properties and its ability to help rid the body of free radicals, as well as toxic minerals such as mercury, lead and cadmium.

It is helpful in fighting infections since it stimulates increased antibody response to infections, promotes more energy in the body, and while it helps with alleviating menopausal symptoms in women, it assists the male in producing healthy sperm.

In certain cases selenium has also proven effective in helping to fight cold sores and shingles, which are both caused by the herpes virus.

Some researchers have shown that in selenium-deficient animals a harmless virus can mutate into a virulent form capable of causing damage and death -this has also been followed up with other studies, which seem to indicate that selenium helps to keep the spread and multiplying of viruses in check.

Selenium is also used against arthritis and multiple sclerosis and if provided in adequate amounts it is thought to help prevent cancer as well. Tissue elasticity and pancreatic function is also dependant on this mineral.

In a study it was shown that selenium could be useful in treating certain cancers, and is also helpful in making the blood less "sticky", which is helpful in preventing heart attacks and strokes.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important and 70 micrograms per day is taken as the required dosage.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
As mentioned earlier - selenium is toxic and too large quantities may result in hair loss, tooth decay, brittle nails, white spots, poor appetite, sour taste in the mouth, loss of feeling in the hands and feet, change in skin pigmentation and the breath may have a garlic smell.

!!Best used with
Selenium should always be taken with vitamins E, A and beta-carotene, and it is preferable when taking a supplement to take selenium in the form of selenocysteine or selenomethionine, which are both organic.

People with yeast intolerance should check the source of the selenium used in the supplement, as certain manufacturers obtain selenium from yeast.

!!When more may be required
Men need more selenium than women as it is lost in the seminal fluid, and people staying in areas where the soil is poor in selenium, should also pay attention to their selenium intake.

!!Food sources of selenium
Brazil nuts are excellent sources of selenium, but are also found in whole grains, shellfish.
Serine was first isolated in 1865 from sericin, a silk protein, and is a nonessential amino acid and can be synthesized in the body from glycine.

!!Serine is required for
Serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies. Some derivatives (e.g. ethanolamine) are also important components of the phospholipids found in biological membranes.

It is a constituent of brain proteins and nerve coverings and is also important in the formation of cell membranes, involved in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, and muscle synthesis. It is also used in cosmetics as a skin moisturizer.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Although toxicity has not been established it has been found that very elevated serine levels may cause immune suppression and psychological symptoms as in cerebral allergies.

!!Best used with
Its production requires adequate amounts of B3 (niacin), B-6, and Folic acid.

!!Food sources of serine
It is found in meats and dairy products, wheat gluten, peanuts as well as soy products.
Silicon is not present in the body in large amounts, yet is found in virtually every type of tissue in the body. Do not confuse it with silicone. Silicon is also called silica and is a natural substance while silicone is a man-made industrial polymer used in breast enlargement operations.

!!Silicon is required for
Silicon is used to keep bones, cartilage, tendons and artery walls healthy and may be beneficial in the treatment of allergies, heartburn and gum disease, as well as assisting the immune system.

It is also required by the nails, hair and skin to stay in good condition and is useful in counteracting the effects of aluminum.

Silicon levels drop as we age, and it might therefore be beneficial as an anti-aging component in our diets.

!!Deficiency of silicon
Although it can yet not be known for sure, it is thought that a deficiency may result in problems with teeth and bones as well as hardening of the arteries.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Unknown.

!!Best used with
Boron, calcium, magnesium, manganese and potassium are indicated as the best nutritional partners for this mineral.

!!Food sources
Silicon is present in onions, wheat, oats, millet, barley, rice, beetroot, alfalfa as well as leafy green vegetables and whole grains.
The simplest carbohydrates and are classified according to whether they are aldehyde or ketone derivatives as well as the number of atoms contained in the molecule.

Single hexoses, glucose and galactose require no digestion and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.

Hexoses contain six carbon atoms, and are found in foods, while pentoses, ribose and deoxyribose contain five carbon atoms and are produced during the metabolism of foodstuffs.
reaped from the All-Vitamins website 2002
Supplements
Sodium is required by the body, but most people have a far too high intake of sodium (salt) in their diet.

!!Sodium is required for
Sodium is an electrolyte in the body and is required in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which protects the body from any infections that may be present in food.

!!Deficiency of sodium
A deficiency is rare, but can easily happen with diarrhea, vomiting or excessive sweating, and a shortage may lead to nausea, dizziness, poor concentration and muscle weakness.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

An amount of about 2,400 milligrams is needed daily.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Excessive sodium may cause high blood pressure, which may lead to a host of health problems. Excessive long-term use of sodium may also cause a loss of calcium from your body.

!!Best used with
It is interesting to note that current thinking is advising people to up their intake of potassium to balance the effects of a higher than normal sodium intake, or to counteract high blood pressure. Additional magnesium and calcium is also advised.

A person should consume about half the amount of sodium in relation to potassium and is best taken with vitamin D.

!!When more may be required
People consuming large amounts of sodium, should look at ingesting extra potassium to balance it. If you are suffering from vomiting, diarrhea or extreme sweating you may require more sodium. People taking lithium for the control of bipolar depression should not be on a sodium restricted diet - but please discuss this with your medical practitioner.

!!Other interesting points
Although a low sodium diet should be strived for, it is wise to start reading food labels and to see the sodium level in these foods. Preserved and processed foods make excessive use of salt in the preparation of the foods, and although you might not be adding extra salt to these products, they are already loaded with sodium.

!!Sodium food sources
Sodium is found in table salt, anchovies, bacon etc.
Suffering from a sore tongue?

If you are suffering from a sore tongue? if you answer yes, you might find that this condition is not always taken seriously by your fellow men, and many people might not see it as a symptom of any underlying problem such as a deficiency in nutrition.

Sore tongue - a vitamin B 12 (cyanocobamin) shortage

Vitamin B 12 (also called cyanocobamin) in short supply can cause a smooth surface which could be most uncomfortable and sensitive - in so much that you might feel unable to eat or swallow.
See also [[Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort)]]
St John Wort has been used for many years in European folk medicine as a herbal dietary supplement for the treatment of melancholia, depression, anxiety, irritability and a host of other mental health related problems. This natural anti-depressant will supply you with a mental "lift" without major side effects or drowsiness.

St Johns Wort ("wort" means "plant" in old English) formula will increase feelings of well-being and helps to modulate the mind's perception of happiness. St John's Wort may therefore help maintain normal healthy moods, especially when the modern-day lifestyle leads to additional physical and emotional stresses.

!!Why you benefit from this formula:
St John's Wort will help to alleviate depression, anxiety, mood swings, irritability etc. and has been effectively used for many years. Mental health may improve with this capsule, any many enlightened mental health workers are using it as an alternative for other side-effect causing anti-anxiety and sleep-disorder rectifying drugs, and many people are referring to it as the herbal Prozac, but of course without the dreaded side effects and contra-indications.

''St Johns Wort''
* Environmental factors, such as poor diet (leading to nutritional deficiencies), and lack of sleep or sleep at the wrong time, could result in feelings of depression.
* Mild anxiety, depression and a general malaise is most often improved with this supplement.
* Panic attacks and anxiety attacks are most often less severe or are averted to some extend with regular intake.
* Proper dosage does not lead to that drugged or tranquilized feeling - just plain calmness.
* To obtain optimal benefit from St John's Wort as many of these factors should be rectified as possible in additional to supplementing your diet with St John's Wort. For example add a good multivitamin mineral supplement to the diet, try to achieve a regular sleep pattern.
* St John's Wort has also been found to improve mood in dieters and may be helpful in preventing binge eating. St John's Wort may have some undesirable effects on a small amount of people - such as restlessness and a mild upset stomach.
* St Johns Wort may increase sensitivity to sunlight in some people.
* If you are taking any other antidepressant medication contact your doctor before taking St John's Wort.
* It is important not to discontinue taking prescribed antidepressants or to add St John's Wort to your regimen without discussing your needs with your doctor.

''Adaptogens''
* These adaptogen compounds extracted from 3 different plant species and are know as adaptogens because they have neither an excessively stimulating effect nor a sedating effect, but rather exert their effect according to individual needs.
* In these plant extracts nature has provided us with the means to cope with the pressures of life. In the East these adaptogens have been used for centuries to combat stress, mental and physical fatigue and to minimize tissue damage resulting from the free-radicals that our bodies are exposed to daily.

!!Clinical
Although supplements do not replace conventional medicine, and any person with a health concern should consult their licensed medical practitioner. St John's Wort has however proved useful in certain instances.
* Results of a meta-analysis involving 23 randomized studies, 15 of which were placebo-controlled, found that Hypericum extracts proved significantly effective in the treatment of patients suffering from moderate to mildly severe depression. K. Linde, et al., "St John's Wort for Depression - an Overview and Meta-analysis of randomized Clinical Trials," British Medical Journal, 313 (7052), August 3, 1996, p. 253 - 258.
* Results of this double blind, placebo-controlled study involving 97 depression outpatients showed that 100 to 120 mg hypericum extract led to noticeable improvements in 70% of the patients. B. Witte, et al., [Treatment of Depressive Symptoms with a High Concentration Hypericum Preparation. A Multicentre Placebo-controlled Double-blind study], Fortschr Med 113 (28) October 10, 1995, p. 404 - 408.

!!Ingredients:
St. Johns Wort 150/350 mg - % RDA
Adaptogens 50 mg - % RDA

!!Dosage: 
One capsule daily.
We also have a stronger 350 mg formula available
Starch occurs in two forms - amylase and amylopectin and is found in cereal grains and other vegetables and plants. In grain it is contained in a husk of cellulose.

For the body to utilize this nutrient it must be freed from its protective cellulose casing which is done by grinding or cooking. The starch molecule has an affinity to water and readily absorbs it, thereby increasing in volume.

Once free of the protective casing, digestive enzymes can act upon it, and prepare it for use in the body as a nutrient.

Long term baking of it will turn the molecule into soluble dextrin - such as in the case of a crust of bread or toast.
Sucrose is one of the sweetest forms of sugars.

It is found in granulated, powdered and brown sugar and molasses and is also found free in nature in a variety of fruits and vegetables.

It is not only extremely water soluble, but on hydrolysis, it yields equal amounts of fructose and glucose.
Sugar alcohol (sorbitol) is also called mannitol, is made commercially by hydrogenation of glucose and is absorbed very slowly into the bloodstream.

It is thought not to require insulin for its metabolism and has the same calorie value as glucose, and nearly the same sweetening effect as well.

Mannitol can be obtained by hydrogenation of mannose which occurs in pineapples, olives as well as carrots.
Sulfur, an acid-forming, non-metallic element is not treated as an essential mineral, since there are no specific deficiency symptoms. It is the hydrogen sulfate in onions that causes us to weep when cutting or peeling them.

!!Sulfur is required for
It is found in the hair, nails and skin, and as much sulfur as potassium is normally found in the body. Sulfur is used to detoxify the body, assist the immune system and fight the effects of aging, as well as age related illnesses such as arthritis.

Although sulfur might not be an essential mineral, it is an essential element of protein, biotin as well as vitamin B1. It is part of the chemical structure of the amino acids methionine, cysteine, taurine and glutathione. It is further needed in the synthesis of collagen, which is needed for good skin integrity.

!!Deficiency of sulfur
Deficiencies will only really happen if a diet is deprived of protein, or a poorly planned vegan diet, and a protein shortage is more likely to happen than a sulfur deficiency.

Sulfur is said to clean the blood and to help protect us against toxic build-up

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high sulfur intake
None reported.

!!Best used with
Sulfur is best used with the B group vitamins.

!!Enemy of element
Sulfur is sensitive to heat and moisture.

!!Food sources
Sulfur is normally found in protein foods, such as eggs, garlic, lettuce, cabbage and Brussels sprouts.
Taurine is a non-essential amino acid and is found in high concentrations in the white blood cells, skeletal muscles, central nervous system as well as the heart muscles. In adults, but not children, this nutrient can be manufactured from methionine in the body and from cysteine in the liver, but vitamin B6 must be present.

!!Taurine required for
It is a key ingredient of bile, which in turn is needed for fat digestion, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins as well as the control of cholesterol serum levels in the body. (It is incorporated in the bile acid chenodeoxychloic acid, which emulsify the dietary fats) This nutrient is also used in the proper use of potassium, calcium as well as sodium in the body, and for maintaining cell membrane integrity. It is thought to be helpful with anxiety, hyperactivity, poor brain function and epilepsy as well as hydrating the brain. Taurine, together with zinc is also required for proper eye health and vision.

!!Deficiency of taurine
A deficiency may impair vision and problems with fat metabolism may appear, and a theory exists that it may also be involved in epilepsy developing.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No dosage has been established, but people who take supplements normally take 2 grams, three times per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxicity has been determined and most people would not require a supplement and even small children derive enough of it through human milk, or infant formulas.

!!Best used with
Vitamin B6 is required by the body to synthesize this nutrient from other nutrients.

!!When more taurine may be required
Vegans who consume no eggs or dairy products ingest virtually no taurine through their diets, but normally have enough since the body can manufacture the requirements. Children with Down's syndrome may benefit from taurine, and women being treated for breast cancer as well as people with metabolic disorders, since metabolic disorders can cause loss of this nutrient via urine. Diabetics may also benefit from this nutrient, since this disease increase the need for this nutrient.

!!Enemy of taurine
High intake of alcohol may cause the body not to be able to use it fully.

!!Food sources
Taurine is mostly found in meat and fish, and the adult body can manufacture it.
Testosterone (male sex hormone) is secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes. Although it becomes important in puberty, it is also involved much earlier in the male fetus for the development of certain parts of the male genitals.

At puberty the pituitary gland starts excreting the luteinizing hormone which stimulate the production of this hormone which starts the changes in a selection of areas - such as the penis, muscles, facial skin, shoulders as well as the brain.
Threonine is an essential amino acid, and cannot be manufactured by the body and is found in high concentrations in the heart, skeletal muscles and central nervous system.

!!Threonine required for
It is required to help maintain the proper protein balance in the body, as well as assist in the formation of collagen and elastin in the skin.

It is further involved in liver functioning (including fighting fatty liver), lipotropic functions when combined with aspartic acid and methionine as well as assisting the immune system by helping the production of antibodies and promotes thymus growth and activity.

Other nutrients are also better absorbed when threonine is present, and it has also been used as part treatment of mental health.

!!Deficiency of threonine
It is a precursor of isoleucine and imbalance may result if the synthesis rate from asparate is incorrect.

In humans, deficiency may result in irritability and a generally difficult personality.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

People taking supplements normally take a dosage ranging between 103 milligrams and 500 milligrams daily

!!Threonine found in food sources
Good levels of threonine are found in most meats, dairy and eggs, as well as in lower quantities in wheat germ, nuts, beans and some vegetables.
Trace elements are needed in even smaller quantities than minerals, yet are also of vital importance.
Trace elements are also known as micronutrients and are found only in minute quantities in the body – yet they are vitally important. The quantities in which they are found are so small, that they can only be detected by spectrographic methods or by using radioactive elements.

Our diets, consisting of more and more refined foods are causing concern that modern man is not receiving enough of these trace elements in his food sources, and dietary supplements may be of use in combating this shortage.

The interaction of these micro-nutrients are difficult to study, since they are found occurring together in various forms and amounts in the diet, and their absorption from the intestinal tract may be dependent on their relative concentrations, and might be synergetic or antagonistic, and the amount could depend on the amount of other essential trace elements in the diet.

!!Essential nutritional elements
To decide whether a micronutrient is “essential” or not, a wide variety of criteria is used, such as the presence of the nutrient in healthy tissue, if it appears in the fetus and newborns and if the body maintains homeostatic control over its uptake in the bloodstream or tissue and its excretion.

The following are considered essential micronutrients: cobalt, copper, chromium, fluorine, iron, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc.

On the other hand, nickel, tin, vanadium, silicon, boron have recently been found as important micronutrients, whereas aluminum, arsenic, barium, bismuth, bromine, cadmium, germanium, gold, lead, lithium, mercury, rubidium, silver, strontium, titanium and zirconium is all found in plant and animal tissue, yet their importance is still being determined.

[[Boron]] 
[[Chromium]] 
[[Cobalt]] 
[[Copper]]
[[Fluorine]] 
[[Iodine]] 
[[Iron]] 
[[Manganese]] 
[[Molybdenum]] 
[[Selenium]] 
[[Silicon]] 
[[Zinc]] 
The herb tribulus terrestris shows remarkable qualities in naturally increasing the level of luteinizing hormone levels (LH) thereby improving the manufacture of testosterone in the body - a level of up to 30% is claimed. It is furthermore used by people doing serious bodybuilding.

!!Tribulus terrestris is used for
This herbal supplement has been used for centuries in Eastern cultures, and the active ingredient is extracted from the fruits. The fruits contain alkaloids, resins, tannins, sugars, sterols, essential oil, peroxidase, diastase and glucoside.

It has been used as a diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, urinary disorders, gout, impotence etc.

The saponins contained in this product is thought to help convert androstenedione and DHEA into testosterone, since a low level of luteinizing hormone in the body will impede the conversion.

Since tribulus terrestris helps with increasing the level of the luteinizing hormone in the body, the formation and synthesis of the testicular male sex hormone testosterone would be improved.

!!Dosage
Since it is not an essential ingredient no RDA has been established for human consumption.
Trisaccharides are sugars containing three hexoses.

Raffinose, found in molasses contains the three hexose's; glucose, fructose and galactose, while maltotriose, an intermediate product of starch digestion contains three glucose units.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid and is needed to maintain optimum health.

!!Tryptophan required for
This amino acid is required for the production of niacin (vitamin B3). It is used by the human body to produce serotonin, a neurotransmitter that is important for normal nerve and brain function. Serotonin is important in sleep, stabilizing emotional moods, pain control, inflammation, intestinal peristalsis, etc.

It is further important in controlling hyperactivity in children, assists in alleviating stress, helps with weight loss and reducing appetite. It has also been found that people suffering from migraine headaches have abnormal levels of tryptophan, and in this supplementation may be helpful.

A shortage of tryptophan, combined with a shortage of magnesium may be a contributing factor to heart artery spasms.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

In certain studies supplementation of 300 mg - 600 mg per day was experimented with to help with sleep disturbances, migraines, weight loss, appetite control, anxiety and depression, but a supplementation of 100 mg at night-time proved beneficial to promote better sleep.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Supplementation with high dosage of this amino acid could lead to gastrointestinal upsets, headaches, sleepiness and anxiety.

!!Best used with
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is required by the body for the formation of tryptophan, but people taking anti-depressants or serotonin modifying medication should be careful in taking a supplementation.

!!Other interesting points
Supplemental 5-HTP is derived from the seeds of the Griffonia simplicifolia, a West African medicinal plant.

!!Food sources of tryptophan
Good dietary sources for this amino acid is cottage cheese, meat, soy protein and peanuts.
Tyrosine was first isolated from casein in 1849 and is abundant in insulin as well as the enzyme papain and can be synthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine in the body.

It is a precursor of the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, all of them extremely important in the brain and transmits nerve impulses and prevents depression. Dopamine is also vital to mental function and seems to play a role in sex drive

!!Tyrosine required for
The action of this amino acid in brain functions is clear with its link to dopamine as well as norepinephrine, but it is also helpful in suppressing the appetite and reducing body fat, production of skin and hair pigment, the proper functioning of the thyroid as well as the pituitary and adrenal gland.

It is used for stress reduction and may be beneficial in narcolepsy, fatigue, anxiety, depression, allergies, headaches as well as drug withdrawal. In a study, using soldiers, tyrosine proved effective in alleviating stress and keeping them more alert.

!!Deficiency of nutrient
Tyrosine, a parent amino acid for skin, hair, and eye pigments and is involved in syndromes, known generally as oculocutaneous albinism, that are characterized by the failure to form melanin pigments, resulting in partial or complete albinism.

It is also the precursor amino acid for the thyroid gland hormone thyroxin, and a defect in this may result in hypothyroidism - an enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter), severe growth failure, and retardation of central nervous system development.

A deficiency may also have symptoms of low blood pressure, low body temperature (including cold hands and feet) and "restless leg syndrome".

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage levels are not confirmed but some experiments have been performed with people taking up to 5 - 7 grams per day, with no confirmed toxic levels, but people taking MAO inhibitors, who suffer from high blood pressure and have problems with skin cancer should not take supplementation of L-tyrosine, and should aim to limit their intake of food sources high in this nutrient.

!!Best used with
If taking a tyrosine supplement it is best to take it at bedtime, or with a high carbohydrate meal to prevent competition of absorption with other amino acids. Folic acid, copper and vitamin B6 is a good combination to have with this nutrient to maximize absorption and effectiveness.

!!Other interesting points
Tyrosine and tryptophan have with been used with some success in the treatment of cocaine abuse and in another study it was combined with the antidepressant Imipramine to treat chronic cocaine abuse where it was reported that the combination blocked the cocaine high and prevented the severe depression that accompanies withdrawal.

!!Food sources of tyrosine
Meat, dairy, eggs as well as almonds, avocados and bananas are good sources of this nutrient.
Valine is an amino acid obtained by hydrolysis of proteins and was first isolated by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1901 from casein and is not only an essential amino acid but is also a branched-chain amino acid (the others are isoleucine and leucine) found in high concentration in the muscles.

!!Valine required for
It has a stimulating effect and is needed for muscle metabolism, repair and growth of tissue and maintaining the nitrogen balance in the body.

Since it is a branched-chain amino acid, it can be used as an energy source in the muscles, and in doing so preserves the use of glucose.

Many amino acids become deficient with drug addiction, and here it also plays an important role and there are indications that it may also be beneficial in treating or reversing hepatic encephalopathy, or alcohol related brain damage, as well as degenerative neurological conditions.

!!Deficiency of valine
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by the inability to metabolize leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The disease is so named because urine from affected people smells like maple syrup. A deficiency may affect the myelin covering of the nerves.

Also see Isoleucine and Leucine and also look at Branched-chain amino acids.

!!Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Very high levels of valine can cause symptoms such as a crawling sensation on the skin, as well as hallucinations. Individuals with kidney or liver disease should be careful in consuming high intakes of amino acids without consulting their doctor.

!!Best used with
The three branched-chain amino acids should always be taken in balance.

!!Other interesting points
Valine is often used by bodybuilders, (in conjunction with leucine and isoleucine), to promote muscle growth, tissue repair and energizer, although little scientific evidence supports these claims. Studies have however shown that these three substances might be useful in restoring muscle mass in people with liver disease, injuries, or who have undergone surgery.

!!Valine found in food sources
Good sources for this nutrient include dairy, meat, grain, mushrooms, soy and peanuts.
Vitalyze energy boost supplement ingredients

Our Vitalyze energy supplement contains the following ingredients per daily dose of 2 capsules:
|L-Phenylalanine|200|mg|-|
|L-Tyrosine|200|mg|-|
|Ginseng|500|mg|-|
|Thiamine mononitrate (Vitamin B1)|10|mg|714 % RDA|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)|10|mg|625 % RDA|
|Pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6)|20|mg|1,000 % RDA|
|Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B 12)|25|mcg|2,500 % RDA|
|Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)|120|mg|200 % RDA|
|Chromium picolinate|200|mcg|-|
|Adaptogens|50|mg|-|
Vitamin A and beta-carotene can be obtained from either animal or vegetable sources. The animal form is divided between retinol and dehydroretinol whereas the vegetable beta-carotene can be split into four very potent groups - alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and crypto-carotene. With enough beta-carotene available in the body, the body can manufacture its own vitamin A.

!!Vitamin A is required for
Vitamin A is required for night vision, and for a healthy skin. It assists the immune system, and because of its antioxidant properties is great to protect against pollution and cancer formation and other diseases. It also assists your sense of taste as well as helping the digestive and urinary tract and many believe that it helps slow aging.

It is required for development and maintenance of the epithelial cells, in the mucus membranes, and your skin, and is important in the formation of bone and teeth, storage of fat and the synthesis of protein and glycogen.

!!Deficiency of vitamin A
A deficiency of vitamin A may lead to eye problems with dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, dry skin and hair, night blindness as well as poor growth. Dry itchy eyes that tire easily are normally a warning of too little vitamin A. If the deficiency become severe, the cornea can ulcerate and permanent blindness can follow.

Abscesses forming in the ear, sinusitis, frequent cold and respiratory infections as well as skin disorders, such as acne, boils and a bumpy skin, as well as weight loss might be indicative of the vitamin being in short supply. Insomnia, fatigue and reproductive difficulties may also be indicative of the vitamin in short supply. Your hair and scalp can also become dry with a deficiency, especially if protein is also lacking.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male 5,000 IU per day (1,000 µg equivalent), female 4,000 IU per day (800 µg retinol equivalent), although 10,000 IU per day is normally used in supplementation.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Dosages exceeding 15,000 IU per day must be taken under medical supervision. Toxicity can appear in some individuals at relatively low dosages and the symptoms may include nausea, dizziness, menstrual problems, skin changes and dryness, itchiness, irritability, vomiting, headaches and long term use can cause hair loss, bone and muscle pain, headache, liver damage, and an increase in blood lipid concentrations. Pregnant women must be careful as a high intake of this vitamin can cause birth defects.

Pro-vitamin A - beta-carotene does not cause toxicity. Be careful if you in the unlikely event run across polar bear on a menu - 500 gram (about ½ a pound) of polar bear liver will deliver about 9,000,000 IU to your diet - a very lethal dose. Headaches, blurred vision, loss of hair, drowsiness and diarrhea, enlargement of the spleen and liver can all be indications when your intake is too high.

!!Best used with
Take vitamin A with B group vitamins, vitamins C, D and E, choline, essential fatty acids together with calcium, phosphorus and zinc for the best results.

!!When more may be required
More of this vitamin is required when you consume alcohol, on a low-fat diet, or a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, if you smoke or live in a polluted area. It may also be indicated if you suffer from diabetes or have an under-active thyroid gland. Be careful of vitamin A in pregnancy.

!!Enemy of vitamin A
Retinol is destroyed by light, high temperatures as well as when using copper or iron cooking utensils. Beta-carotene rich vegetables and fruit must not be soaked in water for long periods, since the nutrients can be lost like that.

!!Other interesting points
There seems to be no toxicity when ingesting large amounts of beta-carotene - you might however have a slightly orange colored skin, as the carotene gets stored in your skin.

!!Food sources of vitamin A
Liver, milk, egg-yolk, carrots, dark green leafy vegetables and yellow fruits are high in vitamin A or beta-carotene.
Vitamin B complex actually refers to a selection of nutrients with some very similar properties, but they are separate nutrients, although most of them work in synergy.

[[Vitamin B1]] - thiamine, thiamin
[[Vitamin B2]] - riboflavin
[[Vitamin B3]] - niacin, niacinamide, nicotinic acid
[[Vitamin B5]] - pantothenic acid
[[Vitamin B6]] - pyridoxine
[[Vitamin B9]] - folacin, folic acid
[[Vitamin B12]] - cyanocobamin, cobalamin
[[Vitamin H]] - biotin

!!Vitamin B complex similarities
It was these similarities that made researchers first think on one vitamin alone, but after full investigation it was found that there were in actual fact several factors included in this one term – hence the group was called the vitamin B complex – but each fraction receiving a separate designation, letter, descriptive name or chemical term.

All these nutrients are soluble in water and are distributed in many common foods with many similarities in dietary sources.

!!Food sources of vitamin B complex
Many of these different nutrients are actually present in the same food source, which added to the earlier confusion of just one vitamin being researched.

The means test when classifying this type of vitamin, mainly hinges around the fact they are water-soluble and being abundant in liver and yeast.
Thiamin, also called vitamin B1, is used in many different body functions and deficiencies may have far reaching effects on the body, yet very little of this vitamin is stored in the body, and depletion of this vitamin can happen within 14 days.

Thiamin is also a miraculous nutrient, somebody suffering from beriberi, scarcely able to lift their head from their pillow, will respond quickly from injected thiamin, and will be on their feet within a matter of hours.

!!Vitamin B1 - thiamine - is required for
Thiamin may enhance circulation, helps with blood formation and the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is also required for the health of the nervous system and is used in the biosynthesis of a number of cell constituents, including the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is used in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid, and therefore plays a part in digestion.

It is also great for the brain and may help with depression and assist with memory and learning. In children it is required for growth and has shown some indication to assist in arthritis, cataracts as well as infertility.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B1
A deficiency will result in beriberi, and minor deficiencies may be indicated with extreme fatigue, irritability, constipation, edema and an enlarged liver. Forgetfulness, gastrointestinal disturbances, heart changes, irritability, labored breathing and loss of appetite may also be experienced.

With too little thiamin around a person may also experience nervousness, numbness of the hands and feet, pain and sensitivity, poor coordination, tingling sensations, weak and sore muscles, general weakness and severe weight loss.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male 1.4 mg per day and female 1.0 mg per day, although 50 mg is usually used in supplementation.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Thiamin toxicity is uncommon; as excesses are readily excreted, although long-term supplementation of amounts larger than 3 gram have been known to cause toxicity.

!!Best used with
Thiamin should be taken with the B group vitamins and manganese.

!!When more may be required
When taking alcohol, antacids and birth control pills or if you have hormone replacement therapy, you need to look at your thiamin intake. People suffering from depression or anxiety and those passing large volumes of urine, or suffering from an infection may all require more thiamin.

!!Enemy of vitamin B1
Thiamin is destroyed in cooking, and intake may be low if the diet is high in refined foods. Do not add soda if you are boiling green vegetables since soda is alkaline and will destroy thiamin.

!!Other interesting points
It is thought that thiamin can be useful for motion sickness in air and sea travel, and that this vitamin also repels insects when excreted through the skin.

!!Food sources of vitamin B1
Sunflower seeds, peanuts, wheat bran, beef liver, pork, seafood, egg-yolk, beans all contain good amounts of thiamin.
Vitamin B 12, known as cyanocobalamin, cobolamin and also known as the energy vitamin is a very widely researched vitamin, and used in supplementation to a very large degree.

This complex structured compound with its cobalt content forms part of the B group vitamins, and the body needs very small amounts.

!!Vitamin B12 - cyanocobamin - is required for
Cobolamin is needed in the manufacture of red blood cells and the maintenance of red blood cells and it stimulates appetite, promotes growth and release energy. It is often used with older people to give an energy boost, assist in preventing mental deterioration and helps with speeding up thought processes. Some people are also of the opinion that it helps with clearing up infections and provide protection against allergies and cancer. This vitamin is also used in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B12
Some symptoms of a deficiency will include a sore tongue, weakness, fatigue, and weight loss, back pain and apathy. It might further result in loss of balance, decreased reflexes, tingling of the fingers, ringing in the ears etc.

A deficiency may also result in the raising of the level of homocysteine in the blood - which in high doses can be toxic to the brain, which may be involved in Alzheimer disease. Severe deficiency may result in pernicious anemia also called Addisonian pernicious anemia.

Another problem that appears in deficiency is the eroding of the myelin sheath - the fatty sheath of tissue, which insulates the nerve fibers in your body.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male and female 3 mcg per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity not established but people taking vitamin B12 injections may experience skin problems if in large excess, but will normalize once the injections are stopped.

!!Best used with
Iron, calcium, sodium, potassium as well as vitamin C are good in nutritional synergy.

!!When more may be required
People on strict vegan and macrobiotic diets are often deficient on Vitamin B12.

Some people suffer from a potentially serious problem, causing the vitamin not to be absorbed in the intestinal tract, which can lead to pernicious (destructive) anemia.

Anybody consuming alcohol should look at their B12 levels or if you take laxatives or antacids regularly.

Older people could also benefit from this vitamin as the intestinal situation changes as you age, and many people older than sixty have difficulty extracting the vitamin from ingested food since the correct stomach acids are not present.

!!Enemy of vitamin B12
Excessive alcohol can impair the absorption of this vitamin.

!!Other interesting points
Vitamin B12 can not be manufactured by any plants, and therefore is only found in animal products - therefore a deficiency may happens to people on a strict vegan diet.

Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, B12 needs some 3 hours to be absorbed where other B vitamins are absorbed nearly immediately.

!!Food sources of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is present in liver, organ meat, muscle meat, shellfish, eggs, cheese, fish, and can be manufactured in the body. Although milk contains B12, processing of milk may lead to destruction of the vitamin.
Orotic acid (vitamin B13) is not really recognized as a vitamin, and is manufactured by the body by intestinal flora. Very little is known about this ingredient and therefore our information is also very sketchy.

!!Vitamin B13 is required for
Orotic acid helps with the production of genetic material and may be beneficial after a heart attack. It is also used in conditions such as multiple sclerosis and chronic hepatitis.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage has not been determined.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
None known.

!!Other interesting points
It is stable and not damaged by heat.

!!Food sources of vitamin B13 - orotic acid
It is found in root vegetables, such as carrots and beets as well as liquid whey.
Pangamic acid, also known as vitamin B15, has not been qualified as being essential to our diets. Very little is known about this ingredient and therefore our information is very sketchy.

!!Vitamin B15 - pangamic acid is required for
Until further research is available, be careful of supplements containing pangamic acid, calcium pangamate, DMG or B15.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Although pangamic acid is not toxic when taken in as part of normal food, the ingredient, thought to be the active ingredient in pangamic acid, called dimethylglycine (DMG), is thought to be cancer causing.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Until further research is available, be careful of supplements containing pangamic acid, calcium pangamate, DMG or B15.

!!Food sources of vitamin B15 - pangamic acid
It is present in brown rice, brewer's yeast, grains, as well as sunflower and pumpkin seeds.
Laetrile, amygdalin is another one of those ingredients, that even if called vitamin B17, it is really dubious if it is a vitamin as such. Very little is known regarding this ingredient and therefore our information is very sketchy.

!!Vitamin B 17 - laetrile - is required for
It is touted as an ingredient which can prevent the growth of cancers, but has been outlawed for sale in many countries. Laetrile may however help with reducing blood pressure and the pain associated with arthritis.

Until further research is done, only use sprouted seeds as your source of laetrile.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Laetrile contains cyanide, which can lead to toxic symptoms, which include headaches, nausea, low blood pressure etc.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Until further research is done, only use sprouted seeds as your source of laetrile.

!!Food sources of vitamin B17
Laetrile is present in apricot kernels and to a lesser degree in other stone fruit kernels. It is also found in sprouting seeds.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is manufactured in the body by the intestinal flora and is easily absorbed, although very small quantities are stored, so there is a constant need for this vitamin.

!!Vitamin B2 - riboflavin - is required for
It is required by the body to use oxygen and the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), helps to create niacin and assists the adrenal gland. It may be used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration, and growth.

It eases watery eye fatigue and may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cataracts. Vitamin B2 is required for the health of the mucus membranes in the digestive tract and helps with the absorption of iron and vitamin B6.

Although it is needed for periods of rapid growth, it is also needed when protein intake is high, and is most beneficial to the skin, hair and nails.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B2
A shortage of this vitamin may manifest itself as cracks and sores at the corners of the mouth, eye disorders, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, and skin lesions.

Dermatitis, dizziness, hair loss, insomnia, light sensitivity, poor digestion, retarded growth, and slow mental responses have also been reported. Burning feet can also be indicative of a shortage.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male 1,6 mg per day and female 1.2 mg per day although 50 mg is mostly recommended for supplementation.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
The limited capacity to absorb orally administered riboflavin precludes its potential for harm. Riboflavin intake of many times the RDA is without demonstrable toxicity.

A normal yellow discoloration of the urine is seen with an increased intake of this vitamin - but it is normal and harmless.

!!Best used with
Riboflavin is best taken with B group vitamins and vitamin C.

But please note - if taking a B2 supplement make sure that the B6 amount is nearly the same.

!!When more may be required
Extra might be needed when consuming alcohol, antibiotics, and birth control pills or doing strenuous exercise.

If you are under a lot of stress or on a calorie-restricted diet, this vitamin could also be of use.

!!Enemy of nutrient of vitamin B2
Riboflavin is sensitive to light.

!!Other interesting points
This nutrient is of use in the health of hair, nails and skin.

!!Food sources of vitamin B2
Organ meats, nuts, cheese, eggs, milk and lean meat are great sources of riboflavin, but is also available in good quantities in green leafy vegetables, fish, legumes, whole grains, and yogurt.
Niacin also called nicotinic acid, niacinamide or nicotinic acid and referred to as vitamin B 3, which can be manufactured by the body. Niacin is derived from two compounds - nicotinic acid and niacinamide.

!!Vitamin B3 - niacin - is required for
Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration, helps in the release of energy and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids. It is used in the synthesis of sex hormones, treating schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and a memory-enhancer.

Nicotinic acid (but not nicotinamide) given in drug dosage improves the blood cholesterol profile, and has been used to clear the body of organic poisons, such as certain insecticides. People report more mental alertness when this vitamin is in sufficient supply.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B3
A deficiency may cause pellagra, the classic niacin deficiency disease, and is characterized by bilateral dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia.

A shortage of niacin may be indicated with symptoms such as canker sores, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, halitosis, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, limb pains, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscular weakness, skin eruptions, and inflammation.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male 18 mg per day and female 13 mg per day although 100 mg is mostly used in supplementation.

Large doses given to lower cholesterol may produce hyperuricemia, and hepatic abnormalities. These effects are reversed if the drug is reduced in amount or discontinued.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Nicotinic acid, but not nicotinamide in doses larger than 200 mg causes flushing by dilating the blood vessels, which can also cause the blood pressure to drop.

These flushes are normally harmless. Large dosages can also cause itching, elevated blood glucose, peptic ulcers and liver damage

!!Best used with
Niacin is best taken with the B group vitamins and vitamin c.

!!When more may be required
Consuming alcohol and not having enough protein in your diet may increase your need for niacin.

People with diabetes, glaucoma, any liver disease or peptic ulcers should be careful of niacin supplementation.

!!Enemy of vitamin B3
Niacin is lost readily when food is cooked in water.

!!Other interesting points
Nicotinamide is under investigation for helping to prevent and control diabetes.

!!Food sources of vitamin B3
Liver, lean meat, poultry, fish, rabbit, nuts, peanut yeast, meats including liver, cereals, legumes, asparagus, seeds, milk, green leafy vegetables, and fish.

Your daily cup of coffee also provides about 3 milligrams of niacin.
Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, as well as the "anti-stress vitamin" is part of the B group vitamins and classified as a water-soluble vitamin. This nutrient can be manufactured in the body by the intestinal flora.

!!Vitamin B5 - pantothenic acid - is required for
Vitamin B5 plays an important role in the secretion of hormones, such as cortisone because of the role it plays in supporting the adrenal gland. These hormones assist the metabolism, help to fight allergies and are beneficial in the maintenance of healthy skin, muscles and nerves.

Pantothenic acid is also used in the release of energy as well as the metabolism of fat, protein and carbohydrates. It is used in the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and hemoglobin.

Some are of the opinion that pantothenic acid is also helpful to fight wrinkles as well as graying of the hair.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B5
With Vitamin B5 in short supply symptoms like fatigue, headaches, nausea, tingling in the hands, depression, personality changes and cardiac instability have been reported.

Frequent infection, fatigue, abdominal pains, sleep disturbances and neurological disorders including numbness, paresthesia (abnormal sensation such as "burning feet" syndrome), muscle weakness and cramps are also possible indications that this nutrient is in short supply.

Biochemical changes include increased insulin sensitivity, lowered blood cholesterol, decreased serum potassium, and failure of adrenocorticotropin to induce eosinopenia.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No recommended dosage but 10 - 100 mg is indicated.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
It does not appear to be toxic in high dosage, although diarrhea, digestive disturbances and water retention have been reported on dosage exceeding 10 g a day.

Taking 1,500 mg a day over an extended period may cause sensitivity to the teeth.

!!Best used with
It is most effective when taken with the B group vitamins, Vitamin A, vitamin C and Vitamin E

!!When more may be required
People under stress, prone to allergies, consuming alcohol or eating too many refined foods might develop a shortage of this vitamin.

!!Enemy of vitamin B5
Pantothenic acid can be lost in cooking - particularly with roasting or milling, as well as when exposed to acids like vinegar, or alkali such as baking soda. It is also destroyed to a large degree in canning.

!!Other interesting points
Do not add soda to the water when cooking vegetables - it will destroy the pantothenic acid.

!!Food sources of vitamin B5
Beef, brewer’s yeast, eggs, fresh vegetables, kidney, legumes, liver, mushrooms, nuts, pork, royal jelly, saltwater fish, torula yeast, whole rye flour, and whole wheat.
Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine is part of the B group vitamins and is water-soluble and is required for both mental and physical health.

!!Vitamin B6 - pyridoxine - is required for
Pyridoxine is required for the balancing of hormonal changes in women as well as assisting the immune system and the growth of new cells. It is also used in the processing and metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, while assisting with controlling your mood as well as your behavior. Pyridoxine might also be of benefit for children with learning difficulties, as well as assisting in the prevention of dandruff, eczema and psoriasis.

It assists in the balancing of sodium and potassium as well promotes red blood cell production. It is further involved in the nucleic acids RNA as well as DNA. It is further linked to cancer immunity and fights the formation of the toxic chemical homocysteine, which is detrimental to the heart muscle.

Women in particular may suffer from pre-menstrual fluid retention, severe period pains, emotional PMS symptoms, premenstrual acne and nausea in early pregnancy. Mood swings, depression as well as loss of sexual drive is sometimes noted when pyridoxine is in short supply and the person is on hormone replacement therapy or on birth control pills.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B6
Irritability, nervousness and insomnia as well as general weakness, skin changes such as dermatitis and acne as well asthma and allergies might develop when pyridoxine is in short supply. Symptoms may include nails that are ridged, an inflamed tongue as well as changes to your bones - which can include osteoporosis and arthritis. Kidney stones may also appear.

Vitamin B6 deficiency symptoms will be very much like those of B2 and B3. Vitamin B6 is needed by the body to manufacture its own B3 vitamin.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Males 2 mg per day and females 2 mg per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Supplementation should be controlled as extreme dosage, such as in excess of 2,000 mg per day, may cause neurological damage.

People on medication for Parkinson's disease should be careful about taking Vitamin B6 as it can inactivate levo-dopa.

People taking pyridoxine late at night sometimes experience very vivid dreams.

!!Best used with
Pyridoxine should be taken together with the entire B group vitamins, and in supplementation the quantity of B6 should be nearly the same as B2, as the B 2 is needed to activate the Pyridoxine.

Vitamin C is a good partner in nutrition and magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, linoleic acid and fatty acids make good running mates.

!!When more may be required
Should you be taking antidepressants, contraceptive pills or be on hormone replacement therapy you may need more of this vitamin. As this vitamin is readily lost in the urine, it must be taken regularly to ensure an adequate amount in the body.

Anybody on a very high protein diet, using alcohol, or allergic to MSG (mono sodium glutamate) and/or tartrazine may also consider increasing their vitamin B6 intake.

!!Enemy of vitamin B6
Pyridoxine is sensitive to sunlight, cooking and processing Cortisone is known to impair the absorption of pyridoxine.

!!Other interesting points
Exercising may aid the production of the active form of vitamin B6.

!!Food sources of vitamin B6
Good sources to obtain pyridoxine from are brewer's yeast, eggs, chicken, carrots, fish, liver, kidneys, peas, wheat germ, walnuts,
Folic acid, also known as Vitamin B9, is also referred to as folacin or folate and its chemical name is pteroylglutamic acid. This vitamin can be manufactured by the body and be stored in the liver.

!!Vitamin B9 - folic acid - is required for
Folic acid is required for DNA synthesis and cell growth and is important for red blood cell formation, energy production as well as the forming of amino acids. Folic acid is essential for creating heme, the iron containing substance in hemoglobin, crucial for oxygen transport.

It is important for healthy cell division and replication, since its involvement as coenzyme for RNA and DNA synthesis. It is also required for protein metabolism and in treating folic acid anemia. Folic acid also assists in digestion, and the nervous system, and works at improving mental as well as emotional health. This nutrient may be effective in treating depression and anxiety.

Shortage of folic acid may be indicated with diarrhea, heartburn and constipation.

Folic acid is very important in the development of the nervous system of a developing fetus.

!!Deficiency of vitamin B9
A deficiency of folic acid on an unborn baby may increase the risk of the baby being born with spina bifida and other serious defects of the nervous system.

When deficient of folic acid, you might suffer from fatigue, acne, a sore tongue, cracking at the corners of your mouth (same as deficiency of vitamin B2, vitamin B6 as well as iron). Long term deficiency may result in anemia and later in osteoporosis, as well as cancer of the bowel and cervix.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

400 micrograms per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Anybody on medication for epilepsy should be careful with large amounts of folic acid, since it can change the functioning of such drugs.

Too much folic acid may mask a Vitamin B12 deficiency. Regular high intake of folic acid may cause digestive upset, energy loss and insomnia.

!!Best used with
Folic acid is more effective when taken with the B group vitamins – especially vitamin B12 and vitamin B6. Vitamin C is also good to have around folic acid.

!!When more may be required
Pregnant women are sometimes advised to take a small supplement of folic acid to help prevent spina bifida and other congenial nervous disorders, and may also assist to reduce the risk of toxemia in pregnancy, premature labor and hemorrhaging. It is also thought to enhance the production of milk after delivery.

Sufferers of psoriasis may consider taking extra folic acid, people under stress or anyone consuming alcohol.

Women on birth control pills or busy with hormone replacement therapy may benefit from folic acid, as well as children if they are on goat’s milk instead of cow’s milk.

!!Enemy of vitamin B9 - folic acid
Light, heat and storage for extended periods can destroy this vitamin.

!!Other interesting points
Localized deficiencies of folic acid may exist for smokers, as low levels have been detected in the lungs of smokers.

!!Food sources of vitamin B9
Fresh green vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli contain folic acid. It is also found in fruit, starchy vegetables, beans, whole grains and liver.
Vitamin C also known as, ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, the antiscorbutic vitamin, L-xyloascorbic acid and L-threo-hex-2-uronic acidy-lactone, is a much talked about vitamin, with people claiming it as a cure-all for may diseases and problems - from cancer to the common cold.

Yet, this miracle vitamin cannot be manufactured by the body, and needs to be ingested.

!!Vitamin C is required for
Vitamin C is required in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissue, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and enhances iron bioavailability. Ascorbic acid is a great antioxidant and helps protect the body against pollutants.

Because vitamin C is a biological reducing agent, it is also linked to prevention of degenerative diseases - such as cataracts, certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

Ascorbic acid also promotes healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal tissue growth and repair -such as healing of wounds and burns. It assists in the prevention of blood clotting and bruising, and strengthening the walls of the capillaries.

Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, to help protect against infection, and assisting with clearing up infections and is thought to enhance the immune system and help reduce cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and preventing arteriosclerosis.

!!Deficiency of vitamin C
When there is a shortage of VITAMIN C, various problems can arise, although scurvy is the only disease clinically treated with vitamin C. However, a shortage of vitamin C may result in "pinpoint" hemorrhages under the skin and a tendency to bruise easily, poor wound healing, soft and spongy bleeding gums and loose teeth.

Edema (water retention) also happens with a shortage of vitamin C, and weakness, a lack of energy, poor digestion, painful joints and bronchial infection and colds are also indicative of an under-supply.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

The RDA is 60 mg, per day - yet this amount will only prevent you from picking up scurvy and more recent studies suggest that an intake between 200 - 500 mg per day may be the most beneficial for healthy people.

The recommend dosage for pregnant or lactating women is 75-95 mg per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Since ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, toxic levels are not built up or stored in the body, and any excess is lost mostly through urine. If extremely large amounts are taken gastrointestinal problems may appear, but will normalize when the intake is cut or reduced. To determine a level where a person might experience discomfort is difficult, since some people can easily stomach up to 25,000 mg per day, while others start having a problem at 600 or 1,000 mg.

Some people using mega dose therapy of vitamin C may have side effects such as gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps. These side effects normally stop as soon as high potency intake is reduced or stopped.

!!Best used with
Vitamin C will be more effective if taken with bioflavonoids, calcium and magnesium. To enhance the antioxidant properties, it will be best to take it with the other anti-oxidants, as there is strong evidence of synergy between all of them.

!!When more may be required
Mega doses of vitamin C should be avoided in individuals with a history of renal stones due to oxalate formation or hemochromatosis or other diseases related to excessive iron accumulation.

Extremely high dosage of vitamin C may predispose premature infants to hemolytic anemia due to the fragility of their red blood cells.

The need for vitamin C will dramatically increase in times when the body is subjected to trauma, infections, and strenuous exercise, elevated environmental temperatures or if the person is a smoker. Smokers should supplement with another 100 mg per day.

Be careful of taking aspirin and vitamin C together - it may cause stomach irritation.

!!Enemy of vitamin C
Antagonists that destroy this vitamin are air, heat, water as well as prolonged storage, overcooking and processing.

Antacids, alcohol, antidepressants, birth control pills and steroids will also deplete this vitamin.

!!Other interesting points
Ongoing research is looking at the clinical use of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

!!Food sources of vitamin C
Good sources of vitamin C are green leafy vegetables, berries, citrus fruits, guavas, tomatoes, melons, papayas etc.
Vitamin C is truly a magnificent nutritional ingredients, and is proving to be a great help with sorting out a vast selection of ills and ailments. To this we added bio-flavonoids, which helps vitamin C along, and which also has benefits of its own.

It has now been proven that Vitamin C is of great benefit to your general health and even the few that did not believe that vitamin c was effective, now have to agree that it has a definite place in health, prevention of illness as well as treating certain ailments and problems. To this we added bioflavonoids which acts in synergy with the vitamin C to make it even more effective.

!!Ingredient references
Why you benefit from this formula and what it contains:

Adelle Davis, one of the greatest nutritionists that ever walked this earth, was a great champion for vitamin C, and for the benefits that it could offer people on the whole. Although some of her advice was not always well received in her time, most of her prescriptions on how to use it, are now well accepted by most medical authorities.

Adelle Davis's book - Lets Get Well, is a worth the time to read

''Vitamin C info''
*Vitamin C is required in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissue, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, carnitine, conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and enhances iron bioavailability. Ascorbic acid is also a great antioxidant and helps protect the body against pollutants.
*Vitamin C is a biological reducing agent, it is also linked to prevention of degenerative diseases - such as cataracts, certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases. It is also used for the health of gums, skin, bones, eyes, calcium absorption, before and after surgery for healing, treating burns, fighting infections, fighting scar formation, detoxification, preventing fatigue, breaking fevers, treatment of mumps, etc. As you see - a truly magical nutrient.
*Ascorbic acid also promotes healthy cell development, proper calcium absorption, normal tissue growth and repair -such as healing of wounds and burns. It assists in the prevention of blood clotting and bruising, and strengthening the walls of the capillaries.
*Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, to help protect against infection, and assisting with clearing up infections and is thought to enhance the immune system and help reduce cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and preventing arteriosclerosis.

''Bioflavonoids info''
*Bioflavonoids enhance the action of vitamin C and for this reason they should be taken together.
*Bio-flavonoids are effectively used in the treatment of sport injuries as they are pain relieving, They are also used in relieving pain in the legs, across the back and can lessen the symptoms of prolonged bleeding, a low serum calcium as well as oral herpes.
*Bioflavonoids are also active in preserving the structures of capillaries, have an antibacterial effect and promote circulation. It is indicated in the production of bile, lowering blood cholesterol levels and in the prevention and treatment of cataracts.
*Flavonoids are thought to enhance the absorption of vitamin C, and possibly to prolong the effectiveness of it as well. These are super active substances, and can add a great deal to your nutritional needs in health and disease.
*Flavonoids act together with vitamin C to help maintain the thin walls of the capillaries, therefore preventing bleeding or bruising.
*Flavonoids have been linked to having an antibacterial effect, stimulating bile production, promoting circulation and even assisting with fighting allergies, asthma etc.

!!Ingredients
vitamin c (ascorbic acid) 500 mg
bioflavonoids (vitamin p) 10 mg

!!Dosage
One or two capsules per day, or as directed.
Vitamin D is also referred to as calciferol and can rightly be called the sunshine vitamin, since the body, in a sunny climate can manufacture this nutrient from sunshine on your skin using cholesterol from your body to do so.

Please remember that this can be achieved in about 30 minutes by fair skinned people, while dark skinned people, because of the pigmentation need about 3 hours to reach the same level of manufacture. The sunlight needed for this process is pure unfiltered sunlight.

!!Vitamin D is required for
Vitamin D helps with increasing the absorption of calcium, assists in bone growth and the integrity of bone and promotes strong teeth.

It also helps regulate the amount of phosphorus in the body as well as assisting in a healthy heart and nervous system. In some recent studies it has also shown great promise in assisting psoriasis, the immune system, thyroid function as well as normal blood clotting.

!!Deficiency of vitamin D
A shortage can lead to softening of the bone and muscle twitching and convulsions, and in children it causes rickets - resulting in bent legs. In adults, the shortage causes loss of minerals from the bones, (osteomalacia) where the bones are sore, tender, and weak muscles with the possibility of deafness developing. In older people, osteoporosis may appear when protein is also lost from the bone. Vitamin D in short supply is also linked to having a burning sensation in the mouth and throat, diarrhea, insomnia and visual problems.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Male 400 iu, female 400 iu.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Some clinical guidelines for toxicity are sometimes set as 5,000 to 10,000 iu per day to cause toxicity, but other researchers place the value much higher to reach toxicity. You are however advised to keep your supplement intake to no more than 600 iu per day. Having too much vitamin D in your system could leave a too elevated calcium level, a lower appetite, increased thirst, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, abdominal pain. A long-term effect of too much vitamin D is the deposit of calcium in soft tissues of the body including the blood vessel walls and kidneys where it can cause serious damage.

!!Best used with
Check to have vitamin A around this vitamin as well as calcium and phosphorus.

!!When more may be required
When you are very seldom exposed to sunlight, or if you always wear sunscreens with a SPF factor higher than 8, you might need extra vitamin D. This is also the case if you are on a strict vegan diet and older people are also advised to check their level of vitamin D. People with compromised kidneys or liver are at risk of too little of this vitamin, since the kidneys and liver are required to activate this vitamin in processes taking place in those organs.

!!Other interesting points
Vitamin D is also classified as a hormone by certain people.

!!Food sources of vitamin D
Vitamin D is present in fatty fish like kipper, sardines, salmon, tuna and mackerel, liver, egg yolk and butter. Smaller amounts are also present in dark leafy vegetables.
Vitamin E has earned itself a reputation - from spicing up your sex life to banning wrinkles and old age. One of the most important functions of this vitamin is its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that includes eight naturally occurring compounds in two classes designated as tocopherols and tocotrienols.

Vitamin E is an effective chain-breaking, lipid-soluble antioxidant in biological membranes, and aids in membrane stability.

!!Vitamin E is required for
Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, protects your cells from oxidation, and neutralizes unstable free radicals, which can cause damage. This is done by the vitamin E giving up one of its electrons to the electron deficient free radical, making it more stable. While Vitamin E performs its antioxidant functions, it also protects the other antioxidants from being oxidized.

This antioxidant capability is then also great in helping to prevent degenerative diseases - including heart disease, strokes, arthritis, senility, diabetes and cancer. It also assists in fighting heart disease and cancers and is essential for red blood cells, helps with cellular respiration and protects the body from pollution - especially the lungs. Vitamin E is also useful in preventing blood clots from forming and promotes fertility, reduces and/or prevents hot flushes in menopause. An increase in stamina and endurance is also attributed to Vitamin E.

Vitamin E is also used topically to great effect for skin treatments - in helping the skin look younger, promoting healing and cutting down the risk of scar tissue forming. Used on the skin it is also reported to help with eczema, skin ulcers cold sores and shingles.

!!Deficiency of vitamin E
Deficiency of Vitamin E is not common, and the symptoms not very clear cut, but may include fatigue, inflamed varicose veins, wounds healing slowly, premature aging and sub-fertility. When Vitamin E is in short supply symptoms may include acne, anemia, muscle disease, dementia, cancers, gallstones, shortened red blood cell life span, spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and uterine degeneration.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Males 300 iu (10 mg) per day and females 8 mg per day

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity is not easily reached. High intakes may induce diarrhea, nausea or abdominal wind. People on anticoagulant medication should not take more than 1,200 iu per day.

!!Best used with
Take Vitamin E with the range of antioxidants - that being vitamin C, beta-carotene and selenium. Vitamin B group vitamins as well as inositol and manganese is also indicated.

!!When more may be required
When your diet is high in refined carbohydrates, fried foods and fat, or you are taking a birth control pill or hormone replacement therapy, then a supplement of Vitamin E might be called for. People suffering from pre-menstrual cramps, menopausal hot flushes, after a stroke or suffering from a heart disease might benefit from Vitamin E. It might also be beneficial to relieve painful or swollen joints, if you are exposed to pollution (that is about all of us), suffer from poor circulation or from Dupuytren's disease, which is a thickening of the ligaments in the hands.

!!Enemy of vitamin E
Vitamin E is lost in food processing which includes milling, cooking, freezing, long storage periods and when exposed to air.

Vitamin E should not be taken together with inorganic iron supplements as it may destroy the vitamin, while organic iron, such as ferrous gluconate and ferrous fumarate does not affect the vitamin.

!!Other interesting points
When buying a supplement you often see "d-alpha-tocopherol" on the list of ingredients - that means that the Vitamin E is from natural sources, whereas "dl-alpha-tocopherol" will indicate that it is from synthetic origin. As such the origin of the vitamin does not influence the efficiency thereof.

!!Food sources of vitamin E
Vitamin E is found in nuts, oils, vegetables, sunflower seeds, whole grains, spinach, oils, seeds, wheat oils, asparagus, avocado, beef, seafood, apples, carrots, celery etc .
Essential fatty acids are also referred to as Vitamin F, and is composed of two fatty acids -that being linoleic acid and alpha-linoleic acid. (LA & LNA)
There are two basic categories of EFA's (essential fatty acids) - omega-3 and omega-6 which include linoleic acid and gamma-linoleic acid. The body is not capable of manufacturing essential fatty acids, while the fatty acid arachidonic acid can be synthesized in the body from linoleic acid.


!!Essential fatty acids - is required for
Fatty acids are needed for normal growth and behavior and help with healthy cell membranes, a well balanced hormone level and properly working immune system.

They are essential for the synthesis of tissue lipids, play an important role in the regulation of cholesterol levels, and are precursors of prostaglandins, hormone like compounds producing various metabolic effects in tissues.

To the skin, it brings suppleness and a youthful appearance and hair becomes more shiny and healthy when in good supply. It also seems important in the manufacture of sex and adrenal hormones. Fatty acids also stimulate the growth of the beneficial intestinal bacteria. Edema has also been reported with fatty acids in short supply.

Arthritis is said to benefit from these fatty acids and they also aid in the transmission of nerve impulses and a shortage may lead to learning disabilities and a problem with recalling information.

!!Deficiency of essential fatty acids
A major deficiency may cause damage to the heart, as well as the kidneys and liver. Behavior disturbances may also result from a deficiency in the diet.

Hair loss and skin eczema have also been reported as well as excessive sweating.

An under-par immune system may result from a shortage of this nutrient which in turn may result in slow healing wounds, and susceptibility to infections etc.

Stiffness in joints may happen, and an under secretion of tear and saliva may be indicative of too little essential fatty acids in the diet.

It has also been suggested that it may have an influence on infertility in men and miscarriages in women.

Blood pressure may be elevated and the formation of blood clots may be an increased risk to contend with.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

To prevent deficiency the required intake of essential fatty acids lies within the range of 1 to 2 percent of total calories although supplementation suggest 10 - 20 percent.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No toxicity has been reported in healthy individuals but people with health problems should be careful with taking any supplements.

People suffering from epilepsy should be careful of taking supplements of seed oils, as they can aggravate the problem, while people with blood disorders or a problem with bleeding should be careful of fish oil supplements.

Should you be taking a supplement of essential fatty acids, it would be recommended that you first discuss it with your health professional.

!!Best used with
To ensure maximum absorption, make sure that you have sufficient vitamin B3, B6, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, biotin as well as the minerals zinc, magnesium and selenium in your system.

!!When more may be required
Should you be suffering from dry chapped skin, dry eyes, cold hands and feet, bruise easily, have frequent infections or brittle nails and dry hair it may be worth your while to check your dietary intake of essential fatty acids.

!!Enemy of essential fatty acids
Light, air and processing should be well controlled and limited storage time is indicated.
The vitamin is sensitive to heat, air and is lost in processing. Heating the fatty acids can result in free radicals being formed.

!!Other interesting points
When buying a supplement of fatty acids, make sure they are in balanced quantities - but please remember that these oils are unstable. Heat and light must be excluded when extracting these oils and must be stored away from light.

If fatty acid oils are hydrogenated, as in the manufacture of margarine, the linoleic acid is converted into trans-fatty acids - not beneficial to the body.

!!Food sources of essential fatty acids
It is found in grains, nuts and seeds, soybeans, sunflower seed, flax seeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds etc while oil from salmon, trout, tuna and mackerel, as well as borage, blackcurrant and evening primrose oil can substitute some of the functions of the LA and LNA.

Omega-6 EFA is found in raw nuts, seeds, legumes, grape seed oil and flaxseed oil. Omega-3 EFA is found in fish, canola oil, and walnut oil.

Biotin, as referred to as vitamin H is part of the Vitamin B complex group and might be interesting to some people since one of the most visible symptoms of shortage of this vitamin is thinning of hair which can lead to total hair loss.

This does not mean that baldness is a sign of Vitamin H in short supply - severe hair loss might just be indicative of biotin being deficient.

!!Biotin is required for
Vitamin H is used in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and proteins. It plays a role in the Kreb cycle, which is the process in which energy is released from food.

Biotin is also indicated for healthy hair and skin, healthy sweat glands, nerve tissue, and bone marrow, and assisting in muscle pain.

Vitamin H not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also helps with the transfer of carbon dioxide. Biotin is also helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level.

!!Deficiency of biotin
Although a shortage of Biotin is very rare, it can happen and may result in dry scaly skin, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, mental depression as well as tongue inflammation and high cholesterol.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Adults 300 microgram (0.3 mg) per day and pregnant and lactating women 300 microgram (0.3 mg) per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
No known toxic levels are known, as excesses are easily lost in the urine and feces. No known side effects are known.

!!Best used with
Biotin should be taken with the B-group vitamins, but Vitamin C, Vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), Vitamin B 12 and sulfur are good companions to it. A tricologist will sometimes add Biotin to the diet of a patient suffering from alopecia, to help with severe hair loss, but it must be in the right quantities to satisfy the inter-dependence of other nutrients - such as found in our hair, skin and nail supplement

!!When more biotin may be required
Bodybuilders and athletes consuming raw eggs should be careful of not running into a Biotin shortage, since raw eggs contain avidin, which binds with the Biotin, making it impossible to be absorbed by the body.

Long term users of antibiotics may also have to look at their Biotin levels.

!!Enemy of nutrient
Biotin is not easily destroyed

!!Other interesting points
It seems that Biotin may affect hair color, together with PABA, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Some research had varying results with Biotin supplements in returning hair to it original color.

This has proved only successful to a limited degree and only when natural vitamins were used, as the synthetic vitamins did not influence the results very much.

!!Food sources
Biotin is present in cheese, beef liver, cauliflower, eggs, mushrooms, chicken breasts, salmon, spinach, brewer's yeast, nuts and can be manufactured in the body should a small shortfall occur.
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone, menaquinone, menadione) can be produced in the intestines and this function is improved with the presence of cultured milk, like yogurt, in the diet, Vitamin K is classified as a fat-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin K is found in nature in two forms -K1, also called phylloquinone, is found in plants and vitamin K2, also called menaquinone, which can be synthesized by many bacteria. Vitamin K3, menadione, is a synthetic form of this vitamin which is manmade.

!!Vitamin K is required for
Vitamin K is used in the body to control blood clotting and is essential for synthesizing the liver protein that controls the clotting. It is involved in creating the important prothrombin, which is the precursor to thrombin - a very important factor in blood clotting. It is also involved in bone formation and repair. In the intestines it also assists in converting glucose to glycogen, this can then be stored in the liver. There are some indications that Vitamin K may decrease the incidence or severity of osteoporosis and slow bone loss.

!!Deficiency of vitamin K
A deficiency of this vitamin in newborn babies results in hemorrhagic disease, as well as postoperative bleeding and hematuria while muscle hematomas and inter-cranial hemorrhages have been reported.

A shortage of this vitamin may manifest itself in nosebleeds, internal hemorrhaging.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Males 80 micrograms per day and females 70 micrograms per day.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity does not easily occur with normal dietary intake of this vitamin, but can happen if synthetic compound vitamin K 3 is taken. High to toxic uptake in the synthetic form can cause flushing and sweating. Jaundice and anemia may also develop.

If you are taking anti-coagulant (to prevent blood clotting) medication, consult your medical practitioner before taking a Vitamin K supplement.

!!Best used with
Dietary fat is necessary for the absorption of this vitamin.

!!When more may be required
This nutrient can be destroyed by freezing and radiation as well as air pollution. Absorption may be decreased when rancid fats are present, as well as excessive refined sugar, antibiotics, high dosages of vitamin E, or calcium and mineral oils.

!!Enemy of vitamin K
When you are prone to bruising easily, or when pregnant you might be in need of more Vitamin K. But be careful not to take too much Vitamin K in the last stages of pregnancy, since it could be toxic for the baby.

!!Other interesting points
Some people are of the opinion that it also promotes longevity.

!!Food sources of vitamin K
Vitamin K is found in leafy vegetables, cheese and liver. It is also found in asparagus, coffee, bacon and green tea.
Bioflavonoids, also called Vitamin P, are not strictly speaking a vitamin, but for easy classification, we are listing it as a vitamin. The term bioflavonoids refers to many different ingredients and includes hesperin, hesperidin, eriodictyol, quercetin, quercertrin, rutin etc.

This nutrient can not be manufactured by the body and must be supplied in the diet.

!!Bioflavonoids are required for
Bioflavonoids enhance the action of vitamin c and for this reason they should be taken together. Bioflavonoids are effectively used in the treatment of sport injuries as they are pain relieving, they are also used for relieving pain in the legs, across the back and can lessen the symptoms of prolonged bleeding, a low serum calcium as well as oral herpes.

Bioflavonoids are also active in preserving the structures of capillaries, have an antibacterial effect and promote circulation. They are indicated in the production of bile, lowering blood cholesterol levels and in the prevention and treatment of cataracts.

Bioflavonoids are thought to enhance the absorption of vitamin C, and possibly to prolong the effectiveness of it as well. These are super active substances, and can add a great deal to your nutritional needs in health and disease.

This nutrient acts together with vitamin C to help maintain the thin walls of the capillaries, therefore preventing bleeding or bruising. Bioflavonoids have been linked to having an antibacterial effect, stimulating bile production, promoting circulation and even assisting with fighting allergies and asthma.

!!Deficiency of bioflavonoids
If a diet contains enough fruit and vegetables, bioflavonoids should not be deficient, but deficiency would show up as bruising. Where antioxidants are indicated and none present bioflavonoids could be of help, as well as for iron deficiency, since they help in the absorption of iron.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

No dosage has been determined but 500 mg per day is indicated for supplementation.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Very high dosages of bioflavonoids may cause diarrhea.

!!Best used with
Bioflavonoids should be taken with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and calcium.

!!When more may be required
Bioflavonoids should be taken with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and calcium.

!!Other interesting points
Absorption of the bioflavonoids can be a little slow, but small amounts can be stored in the body.

If you are suffering from cold sores, consider taking a supplement of 1,000-mg vitamin C and 1,000 mg bioflavonoids, and then 500 mg of each, three times a day.

A daily intake of vitamin C and bioflavonoids may make you less susceptible to cold sores.

!!Food sources
Bioflavonoids are found in the white material just beneath citrus peel, as well as in peppers, grapes, pine bark, onions, garlic, blue and red berries, green tea as well as buckwheat.
Vitamin T, is found in sesame seeds as well egg yolks and very little is known and available on this ingredient and therefore our information is very sketchy.

!!Vitamin T is required for
It is thought to strengthen the red blood cells.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

Dosage is not known.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Not known.
Vitamin U is found in raw cabbage and is thought to help with the healing of skin ulcers and ulcers in the digestive tract. Not much other information is available - and dosage and toxicity has not been determined. As soon as more information is available on this nutrient, we will add it to this page.

!!Dosage
The dosage underneath is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient.

In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.
The word vitamin comes from the word "vitamine" meaning a "vital amine", but the word, without the "e" at the end became the popular term, still used today.

Vitamins are potent organic compounds that are found in small concentrations in foods, and are employed to perform specific functions in the cells and tissue.

There are certain broad terms used in nutrition and vitamin classification, such as Fat-soluble vitamins & Water-soluble vitamins.


1. [[Fat soluble vitamins]]

Some of the fat-soluble vitamins are also classed as hormones.


2. [[Water soluble vitamins]]

A great amount of the water-soluble vitamins fall under the "B Complex" group, which are really all separate vitamins, but since many of the fractions were found in the same food sources, it was first thought to be only one vitamin, but later it was proven that different vitamins were involved.

In nutrition, water is more essential than food itself, for a person may live for weeks without food but only a couple of days without water. Water is an essential component of blood, lymph, bodily excretions as well as every part of every cell in the body.

In man's body more than half the weight is water. Fluid it is necessary for the functioning of every organ and a body and is a structural component of cells. When cells lose the water they lose their shape. It plays an important role in digestion and absorption as well as circulation and is essential in the regulation of body temperature, lubrication of joints and the movement of waste material.

Water is the carrier of nutrients through the body. Water is lost in four different ways, through the skin through perspiration, from the lungs as water vapor, from the kidneys as urine and from the intestines in the feces.

Fluids are replaced by ingesting fluids and foods containing water. Once such water containing food is ingested the water is absorbed rapidly from the digestive tract into the blood and lymph.

The balance of water is regulated by the body and is balanced between intake and output. The weight of a person may vary by as much as two kilograms (4 lbs) within 48 hours due to the changes in the amount of water and salts taken in and excreted.

It and the event of severe water losses through sweating or diarrhea, the kidneys conserve water by producing less urine. Excessive loss of water will result in the sensation of extreme thirst, and the mechanism for this stimulation is located in the hypothalamus, which is activated by the increase of soluble concentration in body fluids.

!!Dehydration of your body
Dehydration can be fatal, which emphasizes the importance of water in the body. It is that it has been said to that we can lose all our reserve to glycogen, or all reserve fat, but that a loss of 10 per cent of body water is serious and as a loss of 20 to 25 per cent of body water can be fatal.

The term dehydration implies more than just a change in water balance - there is always accompanying changes in the balance of electrolytes as well. When the water supply is restricted or when water losses are excessive, the rate of water loss exceeds the rate of electrolyte loss.

The extracellular fluid becomes more concentrated and osmotic pressure draws water from inside the cells into the extracellular fluid to compensate for this. This condition is called intracellular dehydration and is accompanied by extreme thirst and nausea.

!!Quality of water
The quality of tap water, or water available for human consumption, has been under discussion for some time. Great debate has been argued regarding the quality of water supplied by local councils for household water, and we have seen a great surge in sales of water purification systems for home use.

A variety of contaminants have been found in drinking water, including heavy metals, and other contaminants such as cyanide, pesticides and industrial chemicals.

Although most water supply companies contend that the water is safe to drink the greater majority of Western people prefer to have their water filtered instead of drinking water from the taps or faucets.

The selection of waste materials sometimes found in drinking water can be detrimental to your health and people traveling overseas must rely on bottled water to ensure a source of clean drinking water.

The availability of clean drinking water is a major source of worry in Third World countries where either bad water management has radically compromised the water tables or the infiltration of contaminants from other sources have compromised the water quality.

!!Fluoride and drinking water
Adding fluoride to drinking water has been discussed for years where proponents contend that fluoride occurs naturally in water and that it is needed for the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth, and whereas opponents contend that fluoride can be toxic and that a toxic buildup can happen in the body, which can cause damage to the immune system.

The choice of your drinking water is also dependent on what you are prepared to spend on the water you drink since bottled spring water for daily consumption can cost a great deal of money.

The general rule of eight glasses of water per day is still a great rule to follow - it might just depend on how safe and clean those eight glasses of water really are.

In the final analysis it might be worth your while to install a small water purification system to your faucet to ensure that the water contains no contaminants.
Water soluble vitamins are essential to your health, and each one has its own function in the body.

Vitamins B complex, including thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, B6 (pyridoxine), folacin, B12 (cyanocobalamin), pantothenic acid, biotin and C, as well as PABA, inositol and choline are all water soluble and are therefore classed as “water-soluble” vitamins.

Although PABA, inositol and choline are listed here, their classification as vitamins is sometimes questioned.

This class of nutrient can not be stored in the body to the same extent as that of fat soluble vitamins, and because of this, deficiencies are more likely to manifest themselves than those of the fat-soluble class.

[[Vitamin C]] - ascorbic acid
[[Vitamin B complex]]
[[Vitamin B1]] - thiamine, thiamin
[[Vitamin B2]] - riboflavin
[[Vitamin B3]] - niacin, niacinamide, nicotinic acid
[[Vitamin B5]] - pantothenic acid
[[Vitamin B6]] - pyridoxine
[[Vitamin B9]] - folacin, folic acid
[[Vitamin B12]] - cyanocobamin, cobalamin
[[PABA - para-aminobenzoic acid]]
[[Choline]]
[[Inositol]]
[[Vitamin H]] - biotin

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_5f=a.searchRank-b.searchRank;if(_5f==0){if(a[_53]==b[_53]){return (0);}else{return (a[_53]<b[_53])?-1:+1;}}else{return (_5f>0)?-1:+1;}};_57.sort(_5c);for(var i=0;i<_57.length;i++){delete _57[i].searchRank;}lastResults=_57;return _57;};var moveToWordBorder=function(s,_62,_63){var _64;if(_63){_64=getWordBounds(s,_62);}else{if(_62<=0){return _62;}_64=getWordBounds(s,_62-1);}if(!_64){return _62;}if(_63){if(_64.start>=_62-maxMovementForWordCorrection){return _64.start;}if(_64.end<=_62+maxMovementForWordCorrection){return _64.end;}}else{if(_64.end<=_62+maxMovementForWordCorrection){return _64.end;}if(_64.start>=_62-maxMovementForWordCorrection){return _64.start;}}return _62;};var getContextRangeAround=function(s,_66,_67,_68,_69){var _6a=Math.max(Math.floor(_69/(_68+1)),minMatchWithContextSize);var _6b=Math.max(_6a-(_67-_66),0);var _6c=Math.min(Math.floor(_67+_6b/3),s.length);var _6d=Math.max(_6c-_6a,0);_6d=moveToWordBorder(s,_6d,true);_6c=moveToWordBorder(s,_6c,false);return {start:_6d,end:_6c};};var getTextAndMatchArray=function(s,_6f){var _70=[];if(_6f){var _71=0;var n=s.length;var _73=0;do{_6f.lastIndex=_71;var _74=_6f.exec(s);if(_74){if(_71<_74.index){var t=s.substring(_71,_74.index);_70.push({text:t});}_70.push({text:_74[0],isMatch:true});_71=_74.index+_74[0].length;}else{_70.push({text:s.substr(_71)});break;}}while(true);}else{_70.push({text:s});}return _70;};var simpleCreateLimitedTextWithMarks=function(_76,s,_78){if(!lastQuery){return;}var _79=getTextAndMatchArray(s,lastQuery.getMarkRegExp());var _7a=0;for(var i=0;i<_79.length&&_7a<_78;i++){var t=_79[i];var _7d=t.text;if(t.isMatch){createTiddlyElement(_76,"span",null,"marked",_7d);}else{var _7e=_78-_7a;if(_7e<_7d.length){_7d=_7d.substring(0,_7e)+"...";}createTiddlyText(_76,_7d);}_7a+=_7d.length;}};var addRange=function(_7f,_80,_81){var n=_7f.length;if(n==0){_7f.push({start:_80,end:_81});return;}var i=0;for(;i<n;i++){var _84=_7f[i];if(_84.start<=_81&&_80<=_84.end){var _85=i+1;for(;_85<n;_85++){var r=_7f[_85];if(r.start>_81||_80>_84.end){break;}}var _87=_80;var _88=_81;for(var j=i;j<_85;j++){var r=_7f[j];_87=Math.min(_87,r.start);_88=Math.max(_88,r.end);}_7f.splice(i,_85-i,{start:_87,end:_88});return;}if(_84.start>_81){break;}}_7f.splice(i,0,{start:_80,end:_81});};var getTotalRangesSize=function(_8b){var _8c=0;for(var i=0;i<_8b.length;i++){var _8e=_8b[i];_8c+=_8e.end-_8e.start;}return _8c;};var writeTextAndMatchRange=function(_8f,s,_91,_92,_93){var pos=0;var i=0;var _96=0;for(;i<_91.length;i++){var t=_91[i];var _98=t.text;if(_92<pos+_98.length){_96=_92-pos;break;}pos+=_98.length;}var _99=_93-_92;for(;i<_91.length&&_99>0;i++){var t=_91[i];var _9b=t.text.substr(_96);_96=0;if(_9b.length>_99){_9b=_9b.substr(0,_99);}if(t.isMatch){createTiddlyElement(_8f,"span",null,"marked",_9b);}else{createTiddlyText(_8f,_9b);}_99-=_9b.length;}if(_93<s.length){createEllipsis(_8f);}};var getMatchedTextCount=function(_9c){var _9d=0;for(var i=0;i<_9c.length;i++){if(_9c[i].isMatch){_9d++;}}return _9d;};var getMatchedTextWithContextRanges=function(_9f,s,_a1){var _a2=[];var _a3=getMatchedTextCount(_9f);var pos=0;for(var i=0;i<_9f.length;i++){var t=_9f[i];var _a7=t.text;if(t.isMatch){var _a8=getContextRangeAround(s,pos,pos+_a7.length,_a3,_a1);addRange(_a2,_a8.start,_a8.end);}pos+=_a7.length;}return _a2;};var fillUpRanges=function(s,_aa,_ab){var _ac=_ab-getTotalRangesSize(_aa);while(_ac>0){if(_aa.length==0){addRange(_aa,0,moveToWordBorder(s,_ab,false));return;}else{var _ad=_aa[0];var _ae;var _af;if(_ad.start==0){_ae=_ad.end;if(_aa.length>1){_af=_aa[1].start;}else{addRange(_aa,_ae,moveToWordBorder(s,_ae+_ac,false));return;}}else{_ae=0;_af=_ad.start;}var _b0=Math.min(_af,_ae+_ac);addRange(_aa,_ae,_b0);_ac-=(_b0-_ae);}}};var writeRanges=function(_b1,s,_b3,_b4,_b5){if(_b4.length==0){return;}if(_b4[0].start>0){createEllipsis(_b1);}var _b6=_b5;for(var i=0;i<_b4.length&&_b6>0;i++){var _b8=_b4[i];var len=Math.min(_b8.end-_b8.start,_b6);writeTextAndMatchRange(_b1,s,_b3,_b8.start,_b8.start+len);_b6-=len;}};var createLimitedTextWithMarksAndContext=function(_ba,s,_bc){if(!lastQuery){return;}if(s.length<_bc){_bc=s.length;}var _bd=getTextAndMatchArray(s,lastQuery.getMarkRegExp());var _be=getMatchedTextWithContextRanges(_bd,s,_bc);fillUpRanges(s,_be,_bc);writeRanges(_ba,s,_bd,_be,_bc);};var createLimitedTextWithMarks=function(_bf,s,_c1){return createLimitedTextWithMarksAndContext(_bf,s,_c1);};var myStorySearch=function(_c2,_c3,_c4){highlightHack=new RegExp(_c4?_c2.escapeRegExp():_c2,_c3?"mg":"img");var _c5=findMatches(store,_c2,_c3,_c4,"title","excludeSearch");firstIndexOnPage=0;showResult();highlightHack=null;};var myMacroSearchHandler=function(_c6,_c7,_c8){var _c9="";var _ca=null;var _cb=function(txt){if(txt.value.length>2){if(config.options.chkUseYourSearch){myStorySearch(txt.value,config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch,config.options.chkRegExpSearch);}else{story.search(txt.value,config.options.chkCaseSensitiveSearch,config.options.chkRegExpSearch);}_c9=txt.value;}};var _cd=function(e){_cb(searchInputField);return false;};var _cf=function(e){if(!e){var e=window.event;}switch(e.keyCode){case 13:_cb(this);break;case 27:if(isResultOpen()){closeResult();}else{this.value="";clearMessage();}break;}if(String.fromCharCode(e.keyCode)==this.accessKey||e.altKey){reopenResultIfApplicable();}if((this.value.length>2)&&(this.value!=_c9)){if(!config.options.chkUseYourSearch||config.options.chkSearchAsYouType){if(_ca){clearTimeout(_ca);}var txt=this;_ca=setTimeout(function(){_cb(txt);},500);}}if(this.value.length==0){closeResult();}};var _d3=function(e){this.select();reopenResultIfApplicable();};var btn=createTiddlyButton(_c6,this.label,this.prompt,_cd);var txt=createTiddlyElement(_c6,"input",null,null,null);if(_c8[0]){txt.value=_c8[0];}txt.onkeyup=_cf;txt.onfocus=_d3;txt.setAttribute("size",this.sizeTextbox);txt.setAttribute("accessKey",this.accessKey);txt.setAttribute("autocomplete","off");if(config.browser.isSafari){txt.setAttribute("type","search");txt.setAttribute("results","5");}else{txt.setAttribute("type","text");}searchInputField=txt;searchButton=btn;};var isResultOpen=function(){return resultElement!=null&&resultElement.parentNode==document.body;};var closeResult=function(){if(isResultOpen()){document.body.removeChild(resultElement);}};var openAllFoundTiddlers=function(){closeResult();if(lastResults){for(var i=lastResults.length-1;i>=0;i--){story.displayTiddler(null,lastResults[i].title);}}};var refreshResult=function(){if(!resultElement||!searchInputField){return;}var _d8=store.getTiddlerText("YourSearchResultTemplate");if(!_d8){_d8="<b>Tiddler YourSearchResultTemplate not found</b>";}resultElement.innerHTML=_d8;firstIndexOnPage=Math.floor(firstIndexOnPage/getItemsPerPage())*getItemsPerPage();applyHtmlMacros(resultElement,null);refreshElements(resultElement,null);if(lastResults&&lastResults.length>0){var _d9=store.getTiddlerText("YourSearchItemTemplate");if(!_d9){alertAndThrow("YourSearchItemTemplate not found");}var _da=document.getElementById(yourSearchResultItemsID);if(!_da){_da=createTiddlyElement(resultElement,"div",yourSearchResultItemsID);}var _db=Math.min(firstIndexOnPage+getItemsPerPage(),lastResults.length);indexInPage=-1;for(var i=firstIndexOnPage;i<_db;i++){currentTiddler=lastResults[i];indexInPage++;indexInResult=i;var _dd=createTiddlyElement(_da,"div",null,"yourSearchItem");_dd.innerHTML=_d9;applyHtmlMacros(_dd,null);refreshElements(_dd,null);}}currentTiddler=null;ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely();};var ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely=function(){adjustResultPositionAndSize();scrollVisible();};var scrollVisible=function(){if(resultElement){window.scrollTo(0,ensureVisible(resultElement));}if(searchInputField){window.scrollTo(0,ensureVisible(searchInputField));}};var adjustResultPositionAndSize=function(){if(!searchInputField){return;}var _de=searchInputField;var _df=findPosX(_de);var _e0=findPosY(_de);var _e1=_de.offsetHeight;var _e2=_df;var _e3=_e0+_e1;var _e4=findWindowWidth();if(_e4<resultElement.offsetWidth){resultElement.style.width=(_e4-100)+"px";_e4=findWindowWidth();}var _e5=resultElement.offsetWidth;if(_e2+_e5>_e4){_e2=_e4-_e5-30;}if(_e2<0){_e2=0;}resultElement.style.left=_e2+"px";resultElement.style.top=_e3+"px";resultElement.style.display="block";};var showResult=function(){if(!resultElement){resultElement=createTiddlyElement(document.body,"div",yourSearchResultID,"yourSearchResult");}else{if(resultElement.parentNode!=document.body){document.body.appendChild(resultElement);}}refreshResult();};var reopenResultIfApplicable=function(){if(searchInputField==null||!config.options.chkUseYourSearch){return;}if((searchInputField.value==lastSearchText)&&lastSearchText&&!isResultOpen()){if(resultElement&&(resultElement.parentNode!=document.body)){document.body.appendChild(resultElement);ensureResultIsDisplayedNicely();}else{showResult();}}};var setFirstIndexOnPage=function(_e6){if(!lastResults||lastResults.length==0){return;}firstIndexOnPage=Math.min(Math.max(0,_e6),lastResults.length-1);refreshResult();};var onDocumentClick=function(e){if(e.target==searchInputField){return;}if(e.target==searchButton){return;}if(resultElement&&isDescendantOrSelf(resultElement,e.target)){return;}closeResult();};var onDocumentKeyup=function(e){if(e.keyCode==27){closeResult();}};addEvent(document,"click",onDocumentClick);addEvent(document,"keyup",onDocumentKeyup);config.macros.yourSearch={label:"yourSearch",prompt:"Gives access to the current/last YourSearch result",funcs:{},tests:{"true":function(){return true;},"false":function(){return false;},"found":function(){return lastResults&&lastResults.length>0;},"previewText":function(){return config.options.chkPreviewText;}}};config.macros.yourSearch.handler=function(_e9,_ea,_eb,_ec,_ed,_ee){if(_eb.length==0){return;}var _ef=_eb[0];var _f0=config.macros.yourSearch.funcs[_ef];if(_f0){_f0(_e9,_ea,_eb,_ec,_ed,_ee);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.itemRange=function(_f1){if(lastResults){var _f2=Math.min(firstIndexOnPage+getItemsPerPage(),lastResults.length);var s="%0 - %1".format([firstIndexOnPage+1,_f2]);createTiddlyText(_f1,s);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.count=function(_f4){if(lastSearchText){createTiddlyText(_f4,lastResults.length.toString());}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.query=function(_f5){if(lastResults){createTiddlyText(_f5,lastSearchText);}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.version=function(_f6){var t="YourSearch %0.%1.%2".format([version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.major,version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.minor,version.extensions.YourSearchPlugin.revision]);var e=createTiddlyElement(_f6,"a");e.setAttribute("href","http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#YourSearchPlugin");e.innerHTML="<font color=\"black\" face=\"Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif\">"+t+"<font>";};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.copyright=function(_f9){var e=createTiddlyElement(_f9,"a");e.setAttribute("href","http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de");e.innerHTML="<font color=\"black\" face=\"Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif\">&copy; 2005-2006 <b><font color=\"red\">abego</font></b> Software<font>";};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.linkButton=function(_fb,_fc,_fd,_fe,_ff,_100){if(_fd<2){return;}var _101=_fd[1];var text=_fd<3?_101:_fd[2];var _103=_fd<4?text:_fd[3];var _104=_fd<5?null:_fd[4];var btn=createTiddlyButton(_fb,text,_103,closeResultAndDisplayTiddler,null,null,_104);btn.setAttribute("tiddlyLink",_101);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.closeButton=function(_106,_107,_108,_109,_10a,_10b){var _10c=createTiddlyButton(_106,"close","Close the Search Results (Shortcut: ESC)",closeResult);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.openAllButton=function(_10d,_10e,_10f,_110,_111,_112){if(!lastResults){return;}var n=lastResults.length;if(n==0){return;}var _114=n==1?"open tiddler":"open all %0 tiddlers".format([n]);var _115=createTiddlyButton(_10d,_114,"Open all found tiddlers (Shortcut: Alt-O)",openAllFoundTiddlers);_115.setAttribute("accessKey","O");};var onNaviButtonClick=function(e){if(!e){var e=window.event;}var _118=getIntAttribute(this,"page");setFirstIndexOnPage(_118*getItemsPerPage(),0);};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.naviBar=function(_119,_11a,_11b,_11c,_11d,_11e){if(!lastResults||lastResults.length==0){return;}var _11f=Math.floor(firstIndexOnPage/getItemsPerPage());var _120=Math.floor((lastResults.length-1)/getItemsPerPage());if(_11f>0){var _121=createTiddlyButton(_119,"Previous","Go to previous page (Shortcut: Alt-'<')",onNaviButtonClick,"prev");_121.setAttribute("page",(_11f-1).toString());_121.setAttribute("accessKey","<");}for(var i=-maxPagesInNaviBar;i<maxPagesInNaviBar;i++){var _123=_11f+i;if(_123<0){continue;}if(_123>_120){break;}var _124=(i+_11f+1).toString();var _125=_123==_11f?"currentPage":"otherPage";var _126=createTiddlyButton(_119,_124,"Go to page %0".format([_124]),onNaviButtonClick,_125);_126.setAttribute("page",(_123).toString());}if(_11f<_120){var _127=createTiddlyButton(_119,"Next","Go to next page (Shortcut: Alt-'>')",onNaviButtonClick,"next");_127.setAttribute("page",(_11f+1).toString());_127.setAttribute("accessKey",">");}};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs["if"]=function(_128,_129,_12a,_12b,_12c,_12d){if(_12a.length<2){return;}var _12e=_12a[1];var _12f=(_12e=="not");if(_12f){if(_12a.length<3){return;}_12e=_12a[2];}var test=config.macros.yourSearch.tests[_12e];var _131=false;try{if(test){_131=test(_128,_129,_12a,_12b,_12c,_12d)!=_12f;}else{_131=(!eval(_12e))==_12f;}}catch(ex){}if(!_131){_128.style.display="none";}};var createOptionWithRefresh=function(_132,_133,_134,_135){invokeMacro(_132,"option",_133,_134,_135);var elem=_132.lastChild;var _137=elem.onclick;elem.onclick=function(e){result=_137.apply(this,arguments);refreshResult();return result;};return elem;};config.macros.yourSearch.funcs.chkPreviewText=function(_139,_13a,_13b,_13c,_13d,_13e){var _13f=_13b.slice(1).join(" ");var elem=createOptionWithRefresh(_139,"chkPreviewText",_13c,_13e);elem.setAttribute("accessKey","P");elem.title="Show text preview of found tiddlers (Shortcut: Alt-P)";return elem;};config.macros.foundTiddler={label:"foundTiddler",prompt:"Provides information on the tiddler currently processed on the YourSearch result page",funcs:{}};config.macros.foundTiddler.handler=function(_141,_142,_143,_144,_145,_146){if(!currentTiddler){return;}var name=_143[0];var func=config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs[name];if(func){func(_141,_142,_143,_144,_145,_146);}};var closeResultAndDisplayTiddler=function(e){closeResult();var _14a=this.getAttribute("tiddlyLink");if(_14a){var _14b=this.getAttribute("withHilite");var _14c=highlightHack;if(_14b&&_14b=="true"&&lastQuery){highlightHack=lastQuery.getMarkRegExp();}story.displayTiddler(this,_14a);highlightHack=_14c;}return (false);};var getShortCutNumber=function(){if(!currentTiddler){return -1;}if(indexInPage>=0&&indexInPage<=9){return indexInPage<9?(indexInPage+1):0;}else{return -1;}};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.title=function(_14d,_14e,_14f,_150,_151,_152){if(!currentTiddler){return;}var _153=getShortCutNumber();var _154=_153>=0?"Open tiddler (Shortcut: Alt-%0)".format([_153.toString()]):"Open tiddler";var btn=createTiddlyButton(_14d,null,_154,closeResultAndDisplayTiddler,null);btn.setAttribute("tiddlyLink",currentTiddler.title);btn.setAttribute("withHilite","true");createLimitedTextWithMarks(btn,currentTiddler.title,maxCharsInTitle);if(_153>=0){btn.setAttribute("accessKey",_153.toString());}};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.tags=function(_156,_157,_158,_159,_15a,_15b){if(!currentTiddler){return;}createLimitedTextWithMarks(_156,currentTiddler.getTags(),maxCharsInTags);};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.text=function(_15c,_15d,_15e,_15f,_160,_161){if(!currentTiddler){return;}createLimitedTextWithMarks(_15c,removeTextDecoration(currentTiddler.text),maxCharsInText);};config.macros.foundTiddler.funcs.number=function(_162,_163,_164,_165,_166,_167){var _168=getShortCutNumber();if(_168>=0){var text="%0)".format([_168.toString()]);createTiddlyElement(_162,"span",null,"shortcutNumber",text);}};if(config.options.chkUseYourSearch==undefined){config.options.chkUseYourSearch=true;}if(config.options.chkPreviewText==undefined){config.options.chkPreviewText=true;}if(config.options.chkSearchAsYouType==undefined){config.options.chkSearchAsYouType=true;}if(config.options.txtItemsPerPage==undefined){config.options.txtItemsPerPage=itemsPerPageDefault;}if(config.options.txtItemsPerPageWithPreview==undefined){config.options.txtItemsPerPageWithPreview=itemsPerPageWithPreviewDefault;}config.shadowTiddlers.AdvancedOptions+="\n<<option chkUseYourSearch>> Use 'Your Search' //([[more options|YourSearch Options]])//";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Introduction"]="!About YourSearch\n"+"\n"+"YourSearch gives you a bunch of new features to simplify and speed up your daily searches in TiddlyWiki. It seamlessly integrates into the standard TiddlyWiki search: just start typing into the 'search' field and explore!\n"+"\n"+"''May the '~Alt-F' be with you.''\n"+"\n"+"\n"+"!Features\n"+"* YourSearch searches for tiddlers that match your query ''as you type'' into the 'search' field. It presents a list of the ''\"Top Ten\"'' tiddlers in a ''popup-like window'': the ''[[YourSearch Result]]''. The tiddlers currently displayed in your TiddlyWiki are not affected.\n"+"* Using ''~TiddlerRank technology'' the [[YourSearch Result]] lists the ''most interesting tiddlers first''.\n"+"* Through ''Filtered Search'' and ''Boolean Search'' you can easily refining your search, like excluding words or searching for multiple words. This way less tiddlers are displayed in the [[YourSearch Result]] and you can faster scan the result for the tiddler you are looking for.\n"+"* The [[YourSearch Result]] lists the found tiddlers ''page-wise'', e.g. 10 per page. Use the ''Result Page Navigation Bar'' to navigate between pages if the result does not fit on one page.\n"+"* The [[YourSearch Result]] states the ''total number of found tiddlers''. This way you can quickly decide if you want to browse the result list or if you want to refine your search first to shorten the result list.\n"+"* Beside the ''title of the found tiddlers'' the [[YourSearch Result]] also ''displays tags'' and ''tiddler text previews''. The ''tiddler text preview'' is an extract of the tiddler's content, showing the most interesting parts related to your query (e.g. the texts around the words you are looking for).\n"+"* The words you are looking for are hilited in the titles, tags and text previews of the [[YourSearch Result]].\n"+"* If you are not interested in the tiddler text previews but prefer to get longer lists of tiddlers on one result page you may ''switch of the text preview''.\n"+"* If the [[YourSearch Result]] contains the tiddler you are looking for you can just ''click its title to display'' it in your TiddlyWiki. Alternatively you may also ''open all found tiddlers'' at once. \n"+"* Use [[YourSearch Options]] to customize YourSearch to your needs. E.g. depending on the size of your screen you may change the number of tiddlers displayed in the [[YourSearch Result]]. In the [[YourSearch Options]] and the AdvancedOptions you may also switch off YourSearch in case you temporarily want to use the standard search.\n"+"* For the most frequently actions ''access keys'' are defined so you can perform your search without using the mouse.\n"+"\n";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Help"]="<<tiddler [[YourSearch Introduction]]>>"+"\n"+"!Filtered Search\n"+"Using the Filtered Search you can restrict your search to certain parts of a tiddler, e.g only search the tags or only the titles.\n"+"|!What you want|!What you type|!Example|\n"+"|Search ''titles only''|start word with ''!''|{{{!jonny}}}|\n"+"|Search ''contents only''|start word with ''%''|{{{%football}}}|\n"+"|Search ''tags only''|start word with ''#''|{{{#Plugin}}}|\n"+"\n"+"You may use more than one filter for a word. E.g. {{{!#Plugin}}} finds tiddlers containing \"Plugin\" either in the title or in the tags (but does not look for \"Plugin\" in the content).\n"+"\n"+"!Boolean Search\n"+"The Boolean Search is useful when searching for multiple words.\n"+"|!What you want|!What you type|!Example|\n"+"|''All words'' must exist|List of words|{{{jonny jeremy}}}|\n"+"|''At least one word'' must exist|Separate words by ''or''|{{{jonny or jeremy}}}|\n"+"|A word ''must not exist''|Start word with ''-''|{{{-jonny}}}|\n"+"\n"+"''Note:'' When you specify two words, separated with a space, YourSearch finds all tiddlers that contain both words, but not necessarily next to each other. If you want to find a sequence of word, e.g. '{{{John Brown}}}', you need to put the words into quotes. I.e. you type: {{{\"john brown\"}}}.\n"+"\n"+"!Combine Filtered and Boolean Search\n"+"You are free to combine Filtered and Boolean Search search. E.g. {{{!jonny !jeremy -%football}}} finds tiddlers with both {{{jonny}}} and {{{jeremy}}} in its titles, but no {{{football}}} in content.\n"+"\n"+"!~CaseSensitiveSearch and ~RegExpSearch\n"+"The standard search options ~CaseSensitiveSearch and ~RegExpSearch are fully supported by YourSearch. However when ''~RegExpSearch'' is on Filtered and Boolean Search are disabled.\n"+"\n"+"!Access Keys\n"+"You are encouraged to use the access keys (also called \"shortcut\" keys) for the most frequently used operations. For quick reference these shortcuts are also mentioned in the tooltip for the various buttons etc.\n"+"\n"+"|!Key|!Operation|\n"+"|{{{Alt-F}}}|''The most important keystroke'': It moves the cursor to the search input field so you can directly start typing your query. Pressing {{{Alt-F}}} will also display the previous search result. This way you can quickly display multiple tiddlers using \"Press {{{Alt-F}}}. Select tiddler.\" sequences.|\n"+"|{{{ESC}}}|Closes the [[YourSearch Result]]. When the [[YourSearch Result]] is already closed and the cursor is in the search input field the field's content is cleared so you start a new query.|\n"+"|{{{Alt-1}}}, {{{Alt-2}}},... |Pressing these keys opens the first, second etc. tiddler from the result list.|\n"+"|{{{Alt-O}}}|Opens all found tiddlers.|\n"+"|{{{Alt-P}}}|Toggles the 'Preview Text' mode.|\n"+"|{{{Alt-'<'}}}, {{{Alt-'>'}}}|Displays the previous or next page in the [[YourSearch Result]].|\n"+"|{{{Return}}}|When you have turned off the 'as you type' search mode pressing the {{{Return}}} key actually starts the search (as does pressing the 'search' button).|\n"+"\n";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Options"]="|>|!YourSearch Options|\n"+"|>|<<option chkUseYourSearch>> Use 'Your Search'|\n"+"|!|<<option chkPreviewText>> Show Text Preview|\n"+"|!|<<option chkSearchAsYouType>> 'Search As You Type' Mode (No RETURN required to start search)|\n"+"|!|Number of items on search result page: <<option txtItemsPerPage>>|\n"+"|!|Number of items on search result page with preview text: <<option txtItemsPerPageWithPreview>>|";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearchStyleSheet"]="/***\n"+"!~YourSearchResult Stylesheet\n"+"***/\n"+"/*{{{*/\n"+".yourSearchResult {\n"+"\tposition: absolute;\n"+"\twidth: 800px;\n"+"\n"+"\tpadding: 0.2em;\n"+"\tlist-style: none;\n"+"\tmargin: 0;\n"+"\n"+"\tbackground: White;\n"+"\tborder: 1px solid DarkGray;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+"/*}}}*/\n"+"/***\n"+"!!Summary Section\n"+"***/\n"+"/*{{{*/\n"+".yourSearchResult .summary {\n"+"\tborder-bottom-width: thin;\n"+"\tborder-bottom-style: solid;\n"+"\tborder-bottom-color: #999999;\n"+"\tpadding-bottom: 4px;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchRange, .yourSearchCount, .yourSearchQuery {\n"+"\tfont-weight: bold;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchResult .summary .button {\n"+"\tfont-size: 10px;\n"+"\n"+"\tpadding-left: 0.3em;\n"+"\tpadding-right: 0.3em;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchResult .summary .chkBoxLabel {\n"+"\tfont-size: 10px;\n"+"\n"+"\tpadding-right: 0.3em;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+"/*}}}*/\n"+"/***\n"+"!!Items Area\n"+"***/\n"+"/*{{{*/\n"+".yourSearchResult .marked {\n"+"\tbackground: none;\n"+"\tfont-weight: bold;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchItem {\n"+"\tmargin-top: 2px;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchNumber {\n"+"\tcolor: #808080;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchTags {\n"+"\tcolor: #008000;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchText {\n"+"\tcolor: #808080;\n"+"\tmargin-bottom: 6px;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+"/*}}}*/\n"+"/***\n"+"!!Footer\n"+"***/\n"+"/*{{{*/\n"+".yourSearchFooter {\n"+"\tmargin-top: 8px;\n"+"\tborder-top-width: thin;\n"+"\tborder-top-style: solid;\n"+"\tborder-top-color: #999999;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchFooter a:hover{\n"+"\tbackground: none;\n"+"\tcolor: none;\n"+"}\n"+"/*}}}*/\n"+"/***\n"+"!!Navigation Bar\n"+"***/\n"+"/*{{{*/\n"+".yourSearchNaviBar a {\n"+"\tfont-size: 16px;\n"+"\tmargin-left: 4px;\n"+"\tmargin-right: 4px;\n"+"\tcolor: black;\n"+"\ttext-decoration: underline;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchNaviBar a:hover {\n"+"\tbackground-color: none;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchNaviBar .prev {\n"+"\tfont-weight: bold;\n"+"\tcolor: blue;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchNaviBar .currentPage {\n"+"\tcolor: #FF0000;\n"+"\tfont-weight: bold;\n"+"\ttext-decoration: none;\n"+"}\n"+"\n"+".yourSearchNaviBar .next {\n"+"\tfont-weight: bold;\n"+"\tcolor: blue;\n"+"}\n"+"/*}}}*/\n";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearchResultTemplate"]="<!--\n"+"{{{\n"+"-->\n"+"<span macro=\"yourSearch if found\">\n"+"<!-- The Summary Header ============================================ -->\n"+"<table class=\"summary\" border=\"0\" width=\"100%\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\"><tbody>\n"+" <tr>\n"+"\t<td align=\"left\">\n"+"\t\tYourSearch Result <span class=\"yourSearchRange\" macro=\"yourSearch itemRange\"></span>\n"+"\t\t&nbsp;of&nbsp;<span class=\"yourSearchCount\" macro=\"yourSearch count\"></span>\n"+"\t\tfor&nbsp;<span class=\"yourSearchQuery\" macro=\"yourSearch query\"></span>\n"+"\t</td>\n"+"\t<td class=\"yourSearchButtons\" align=\"right\">\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch chkPreviewText\"></span><span class=\"chkBoxLabel\">preview text</span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch openAllButton\"></span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch linkButton 'YourSearch Options' options 'Configure YourSearch'\"></span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch linkButton 'YourSearch Help' help 'Get help how to use YourSearch'\"></span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch closeButton\"></span>\n"+"\t</td>\n"+" </tr>\n"+"</tbody></table>\n"+"\n"+"<!-- The List of Found Tiddlers ============================================ -->\n"+"<div id=\"yourSearchResultItems\" itemsPerPage=\"25\" itemsPerPageWithPreview=\"10\"></div>\n"+"\n"+"<!-- The Footer (with the Navigation) ============================================ -->\n"+"<table class=\"yourSearchFooter\" border=\"0\" width=\"100%\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\"><tbody>\n"+" <tr>\n"+"\t<td align=\"left\">\n"+"\t\tResult page: <span class=\"yourSearchNaviBar\" macro=\"yourSearch naviBar\"></span>\n"+"\t</td>\n"+"\t<td align=\"right\"><span macro=\"yourSearch version\"></span>, <span macro=\"yourSearch copyright\"></span>\n"+"\t</td>\n"+" </tr>\n"+"</tbody></table>\n"+"<!-- end of the 'tiddlers found' case =========================================== -->\n"+"</span>\n"+"\n"+"\n"+"<!-- The \"No tiddlers found\" case =========================================== -->\n"+"<span macro=\"yourSearch if not found\">\n"+"<table class=\"summary\" border=\"0\" width=\"100%\" cellspacing=\"0\" cellpadding=\"0\"><tbody>\n"+" <tr>\n"+"\t<td align=\"left\">\n"+"\t\tYourSearch Result: No tiddlers found for <span class=\"yourSearchQuery\" macro=\"yourSearch query\"></span>.\n"+"\t</td>\n"+"\t<td class=\"yourSearchButtons\" align=\"right\">\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch linkButton 'YourSearch Options' options 'Configure YourSearch'\"></span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch linkButton 'YourSearch Help' help 'Get help how to use YourSearch'\"></span>\n"+"\t\t<span macro=\"yourSearch closeButton\"></span>\n"+"\t</td>\n"+" </tr>\n"+"</tbody></table>\n"+"</span>\n"+"\n"+"\n"+"<!--\n"+"}}}\n"+"-->\n";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearchItemTemplate"]="<!--\n"+"{{{\n"+"-->\n"+"<span class='yourSearchNumber' macro='foundTiddler number'></span>\n"+"<span class='yourSearchTitle' macro='foundTiddler title'/></span>&nbsp;-&nbsp;\n"+"<span class='yourSearchTags' macro='foundTiddler tags'/></span>\n"+"<span macro=\"yourSearch if previewText\"><div class='yourSearchText' macro='foundTiddler text'/></div></span>\n"+"<!--\n"+"}}}\n"+"-->";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch"]="<<tiddler [[YourSearch Help]]>>";config.shadowTiddlers["YourSearch Result"]="The popup-like window displaying the result of a YourSearch query.";setStylesheet(store.getTiddlerText("YourSearchStyleSheet"),"yourSearch");var origMacros_search_handler=config.macros.search.handler;config.macros.search.handler=myMacroSearchHandler;var ownsOverwrittenFunctions=function(){var _16a=(config.macros.search.handler==myMacroSearchHandler);return _16a;};var checkForOtherHijacker=function(){if(!ownsOverwrittenFunctions()){alert("Message from YourSearchPlugin:\n\n\n"+"Another plugin has disabled the 'Your Search' features.\n\n\n"+"You may disable the other plugin or change the load order of \n"+"the plugins (by changing the names of the tiddlers)\n"+"to enable the 'Your Search' features.");}};setTimeout(checkForOtherHijacker,5000);abego.YourSearch.getStandardRankFunction=function(){return standardRankFunction;};abego.YourSearch.getRankFunction=function(){return abego.YourSearch.getStandardRankFunction();};abego.YourSearch.getCurrentTiddler=function(){return currentTiddler;};}
/***
%/
!Licence and Copyright
Copyright (c) abego Software ~GmbH, 2005-2006 ([[www.abego-software.de|http://www.abego-software.de]])

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
materials provided with the distribution.

Neither the name of abego Software nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific
prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
***/
Zinc trace element information page
Zinc is one of the minerals men should never be without. (see lower down on page) and has such a wide application in human health that everybody should ensure that they obtain enough of this humble trace element.

!!Zinc is required for
It is necessary for a healthy immune system, and is also of use in fighting skin problems such as acne, boils and sore throats. It is further needed for cell division, and is needed by the tissue of the hair, nails and skin to be in top form. Zinc is further used in the growth and maintenance of muscles.

Children, for normal growth and sexual development also require zinc.

It also seems as if zinc helps to control the oil glands, and is also required for the synthesis of protein and collagen - which is great for wound healing and a healthy skin.

!!Deficiency of zinc
There is a shortage of zinc in many people's diet, since zinc is destroyed in the milling process and is also lost in cooking. A deficiency will result in an under-performing immune system, open to infections, allergies, night blindness, loss of smell, falling hair, white spots under finger nails, skin problems, sleep disturbances etc.

Men with zinc shortage may have a problem with fertility, while women may experience irregular periods. Children with too little zinc may have stunted growth and slow sexual maturity.

With too little in the body, the sense of smell might suffer, as well as your sense of taste.

!!Dosage
The dosage is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind. 

In the case of microelements, such as trace elements, the amounts are very small, yet they are still important.

!!Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Elevated intake of zinc (1- 2 gram per day) over an extended period can actually harm your immune system instead of assisting it. Intake of zinc should be kept to under 100 mg per day as larger amounts may result in nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness and hallucinations.

If you wish to take a zinc supplement, rather take it at night on an empty stomach, as zinc can interfere with the absorption of other minerals such as copper and iron. In a multi-vitamin situation, make sure that the zinc and iron is nearly in the same amounts.

Large intakes of zinc can cause nausea and diarrhea

!!Best used with
A good combination in nutrition would be adequate levels of copper, calcium, phosphorous, selenium, vitamin A, B6 and E.

!!When more may be required
Men should always ensure enough zinc in their diets, since the health of their prostate gland is linked to zinc. Zinc is needed to manufacture testosterone and a shortage may induce a low sperm count, loss of libido and other emotional problems. Zinc may also be helpful in fighting infection and inflammation of the prostate gland in older men. It is lost on ejaculation, since sperm needs this mineral to swim towards the egg.

If a women is taking a birth control pill, or receiving hormone replacement therapy, extra zinc may be indicated, and all vegans and vegetarians should also consider their zinc intake, as well as people suffering from psoriasis and women while pregnant or lactating.

People consuming large amounts of alcohol may also be at risk of lowered zinc levels

!!Enemy of zinc
Meat is a better source of zinc as certain whole grains contain phytic acid, which binds to zinc, making it un-absorbable and zinc is also lost through excessive sweating.

!!Other interesting points
Sucking zinc tablets may help with fighting a cold, although some people experience nausea from sucking these tablets.

Food sources of zinc
Great sources are found in muscle meat, poultry, fish and seafood, while grains, nuts, eggs, seeds and brewer's yeast also supply good quality zinc.